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      A Cell-Based Multifactorial Approach to Angiogenesis

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          Abstract

          We here propose an alternative cell therapy approach to induce angiogenesis. We prepared small organ fragments whose geometry allows preservation of the natural epithelial/mesenchymal interactions and ensures appropriate diffusion of nutrients and gases to all cells. Fragments derived from lung are shown to behave as fairly independent units, to undergo a marked upregulation of angiogenic factors and to continue to function for several weeks in vitro in serum-free media. When implanted into hosts, they transcribe a similar array of angiogenic factors that specifically induce the formation of a potent vascular network. The angiogenic induction capacity of these fragments was also tested in a mouse and rat model of limb ischemia. We report that such fragments, when implanted in the vicinity of the ischaemic area, induce an angiogenic response which can rescue the ischaemia-induced damage. The approach presented differs from single factor application, gene therapy and other cell therapy methods in that it exploits the complex behaviour of autologous cells in their near to normal environment in order to achieve secretion of a whole range of angiogenic stimuli continuously and in an apparently coordinated fashion.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments.

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            Molecular regulation of vessel maturation.

             R Jain (2003)
            The maturation of nascent vasculature, formed by vasculogenesis or angiogenesis, requires recruitment of mural cells, generation of an extracellular matrix and specialization of the vessel wall for structural support and regulation of vessel function. In addition, the vascular network must be organized so that all the parenchymal cells receive adequate nutrients. All of these processes are orchestrated by physical forces as well as by a constellation of ligands and receptors whose spatio-temporal patterns of expression and concentration are tightly regulated. Inappropriate levels of these physical forces or molecules produce an abnormal vasculature--a hallmark of various pathologies. Normalization of the abnormal vasculature can facilitate drug delivery to tumors and formation of a mature vasculature can help realize the promise of therapeutic angiogenesis and tissue engineering.
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              Therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with limb ischaemia by autologous transplantation of bone-marrow cells: a pilot study and a randomised controlled trial.

              Preclinical studies have established that implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, into ischaemic limbs increases collateral vessel formation. We investigated efficacy and safety of autologous implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells in patients with ischaemic limbs because of peripheral arterial disease. We first did a pilot study, in which 25 patients (group A) with unilateral ischaemia of the leg were injected with bone marrow-mononuclear cells into the gastrocnemius of the ischaemic limb and with saline into the less ischaemic limb. We then recruited 22 patients (group B) with bilateral leg ischaemia, who were randomly injected with bone marrow-mononuclear cells in one leg and peripheral blood-mononuclear cells in the other as a control. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility of treatment, based on ankle-brachial index (ABI) and rest pain, and analysis was per protocol. Two patients were excluded from group B after randomisation. At 4 weeks in group B patients, ABI was significantly improved in legs injected with bone marrow-mononuclear cells compared with those injected with peripheral blood-mononuclear cells (difference 0.09 [95% CI 0.06-0.11]; p<0.0001). Similar improvements were seen for transcutaneous oxygen pressure (13 [9-17]; p<0.0001), rest pain (-0.85 [-1.6 to -0.12]; p=0.025), and pain-free walking time (1.2 [0.7-1.7]; p=0.0001). These improvements were sustained at 24 weeks. Similar improvements were seen in group A patients. Two patients in group A died after myocardial infarction unrelated to treatment. Autologous implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells could be safe and effective for achievement of therapeutic angiogenesis, because of the natural ability of marrow cells to supply endothelial progenitor cells and to secrete various angiogenic factors or cytokines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2005
                February 2005
                28 January 2005
                : 42
                : 1
                : 29-37
                Affiliations
                aInstitute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, bDepartment of Surgery, Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot, and cDepartment of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
                Article
                82897 J Vasc Res 2005;42:29–37
                10.1159/000082897
                15627784
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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