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      Multi-Disciplinary Management of Athletes with Post-Concussion Syndrome: An Evolving Pathophysiological Approach

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          Abstract

          Historically, patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) have been managed in a uniform fashion consisting mostly of prescribed physical and cognitive rest with the expectation that all symptoms will spontaneously resolve with time. Although this approach will result in successful return to school and sports activities in the majority of athletes, an important proportion will develop persistent concussion symptoms characteristic of post-concussion syndrome (PCS). Recent advances in exercise science, neuroimaging, and clinical research suggest that the clinical manifestations of PCS are mediated by unique pathophysiological processes that can be identified by features of the clinical history and physical examination as well as the use of graded aerobic treadmill testing. Athletes who develop PCS represent a unique population whose care must be individualized and must incorporate a rehabilitative strategy that promotes enhanced recovery of concussion-related symptoms while preventing physical deconditioning. In this review, we present our evolving evidence-based approach to evaluation and management of athletes with PCS that aims to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating persistent concussion symptoms and guides the initiation of individually tailored rehabilitation programs that target these processes. In addition, we outline the important qualified roles that multi-disciplinary healthcare professionals can play in the management of this patient population, and discuss where future research efforts must be focused to further evaluate this evolving pathophysiological approach.

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          Most cited references 123

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              Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study.

              Lack of empirical data on recovery time following sport-related concussion hampers clinical decision making about return to play after injury. To prospectively measure immediate effects and natural recovery course relating to symptoms, cognitive functioning, and postural stability following sport-related concussion. Prospective cohort study of 1631 football players from 15 US colleges. All players underwent preseason baseline testing on concussion assessment measures in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Ninety-four players with concussion (based on American Academy of Neurology criteria) and 56 noninjured controls underwent assessment of symptoms, cognitive functioning, and postural stability immediately, 3 hours, and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days after injury. Scores on the Graded Symptom Checklist (GSC), Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and a neuropsychological test battery. No player with concussion was excluded from participation; 79 players with concussion (84%) completed the protocol through day 90. Players with concussion exhibited more severe symptoms (mean GSC score 20.93 [95% confidence interval [CI], 15.65-26.21] points higher than that of controls), cognitive impairment (mean SAC score 2.94 [95% CI, 1.50-4.38] points lower than that of controls), and balance problems (mean BESS score 5.81 [95% CI, -0.67 to 12.30] points higher than that of controls) immediately after concussion. On average, symptoms gradually resolved by day 7 (GSC mean difference, 0.33; 95% CI, -1.41 to 2.06), cognitive functioning improved to baseline levels within 5 to 7 days (day 7 SAC mean difference, -0.03; 95% CI, -1.33 to 1.26), and balance deficits dissipated within 3 to 5 days after injury (day 5 BESS mean difference, -0.31; 95% CI, -3.02 to 2.40). Mild impairments in cognitive processing and verbal memory evident on neuropsychological testing 2 days after concussion resolved by day 7. There were no significant differences in symptoms or functional impairments in the concussion and control groups 90 days after concussion. Collegiate football players may require several days for recovery of symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, and postural instability after concussion. Further research is required to determine factors that predict variability in recovery time after concussion. Standardized measurement of postconcussive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and postural stability may enhance clinical management of athletes recovering from concussion.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Pan Am Concussion Program, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Canada North Concussion Network , Winnipeg, MB, Canada
                2UBMD Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , Buffalo, NY, USA
                3Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , Buffalo, NY, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Vassilis E. Koliatsos, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA

                Reviewed by: Edwin Arthur Shores, Macquarie University, Australia; Vani Rao, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA

                *Correspondence: Michael J. Ellis, mellis3@ 123456panamclinic.com

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Neurotrauma, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2295
                24 August 2016
                2016
                : 7
                10.3389/fneur.2016.00136
                4995355
                Copyright © 2016 Ellis, Leddy and Willer.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 124, Pages: 14, Words: 11902
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Hypothesis and Theory

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