The effects of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on the pituitary adrenal responses following injections of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or electrical stimulation of central NE and 5-HT pathways were studied in anesthetized male rats. PVN injections of an α<sub>1</sub>-adrenergic receptor agonist or a serotonergic 5-HT<sub>1A</sub> receptor agonist markedly increased both adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone (CS) serum levels. These responses were significantly inhibited by separate pre-injection of the selective non-NMDA and NMDA glutamate receptor subtype antagonists into the PVN in a dose-dependent manner. Electrical stimulation of either the ventral noradrenergic bundle or the dorsal raphe nucleus markedly increased serum ACTH and CS. These responses were also significantly attenuated by pre-injection of the above glutamate ionotropic receptor antagonists in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that glutamatergic interneurons in the PVN, acting via non-NMDA and NMDA receptors, may act as an excitatory mechanism in the NE and 5-HT control of hypothalamic ACTH secretagogues.