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Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

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      Abstract

      Introduction

      Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations.

      Methods

      A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions.

      Results

      AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience.

      Conclusion

      The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 78

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      A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity.

      Regression methods were used to select and score 12 items from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to reproduce the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales in the general US population (n=2,333). The resulting 12-item short-form (SF-12) achieved multiple R squares of 0.911 and 0.918 in predictions of the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores, respectively. Scoring algorithms from the general population used to score 12-item versions of the two components (Physical Components Summary and Mental Component Summary) achieved R squares of 0.905 with the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and 0.938 with SF-36 Mental Component Summary when cross-validated in the Medical Outcomes Study. Test-retest (2-week)correlations of 0.89 and 0.76 were observed for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, respectively, in the general US population (n=232). Twenty cross-sectional and longitudinal tests of empirical validity previously published for the 36-item short-form scales and summary measures were replicated for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, including comparisons between patient groups known to differ or to change in terms of the presence and seriousness of physical and mental conditions, acute symptoms, age and aging, self-reported 1-year changes in health, and recovery for depression. In 14 validity tests involving physical criteria, relative validity estimates for the 12-item Physical Component Summary ranged from 0.43 to 0.93 (median=0.67) in comparison with the best 36-item short-form scale. Relative validity estimates for the 12-item Mental Component Summary in 6 tests involving mental criteria ranged from 0.60 to 107 (median=0.97) in relation to the best 36-item short-form scale. Average scores for the 2 summary measures, and those for most scales in the 8-scale profile based on the 12-item short-form, closely mirrored those for the 36-item short-form, although standard errors were nearly always larger for the 12-item short-form.
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        Emerging adulthood is proposed as a new conception of development for the period from the late teens through the twenties, with a focus on ages 18-25. A theoretical background is presented. Then evidence is provided to support the idea that emerging adulthood is a distinct period demographically, subjectively, and in terms of identity explorations. How emerging adulthood differs from adolescence and young adulthood is explained. Finally, a cultural context for the idea of emerging adulthood is outlined, and it is specified that emerging adulthood exists only in cultures that allow young people a prolonged period of independent role exploration during the late teens and twenties.
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          PedsQL 4.0: reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 generic core scales in healthy and patient populations.

           James Varni,  P Kurtin,  M Seid (2001)
          The PedsQL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) (Children's Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, California) is a modular instrument for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents ages 2 to 18. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales are multidimensional child self-report and parent proxy-report scales developed as the generic core measure to be integrated with the PedsQL Disease-Specific Modules. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales consist of 23 items applicable for healthy school and community populations, as well as pediatric populations with acute and chronic health conditions. The 4 PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales (Physical, Emotional, Social, School) were administered to 963 children and 1,629 parents (1,677 subjects accrued overall) recruited from pediatric health care settings. Item-level and scale-level measurement properties were computed. Internal consistency reliability for the Total Scale Score (alpha = 0.88 child, 0.90 parent report), Physical Health Summary Score (alpha = 0.80 child, 0.88 parent), and Psychosocial Health Summary Score (alpha = 0.83 child, 0.86 parent) were acceptable for group comparisons. Validity was demonstrated using the known-groups method, correlations with indicators of morbidity and illness burden, and factor analysis. The PedsQL distinguished between healthy children and pediatric patients with acute or chronic health conditions, was related to indicators of morbidity and illness burden, and displayed a factor-derived solution largely consistent with the a priori conceptually-derived scales. The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales may be applicable in clinical trials, research, clinical practice, school health settings, and community populations.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Tampa, FL, USA
            [2 ]Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
            [3 ]H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Adolescent Young Adult Oncology Program, Tampa, FL, USA
            [4 ]Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
            [5 ]H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Department of Sarcoma, Tampa, FL, USA
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Gwendolyn P Quinn, Health Outcomes and Behavior, 12902 Magnolia Drive, MRC CANCONT, Tampa, FL 33612, USA, Tel +1 813 745 1359, Fax +1 813 449 8019, Email gwen.quinn@ 123456moffitt.org
            Journal
            Patient Relat Outcome Meas
            Patient Relat Outcome Meas
            Patient Related Outcome Measures
            Patient Related Outcome Measures
            Dove Medical Press
            1179-271X
            2015
            17 February 2015
            : 6
            : 19-51
            4337625 10.2147/PROM.S51658 prom-6-019
            © 2015 Quinn et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

            The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

            Categories
            Review

            Medicine

            adolescent and young adult, oncology, quality of life

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