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      Changing trends of hemodynamic monitoring in ICU - from invasive to non-invasive methods: Are we there yet?


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          Hemodynamic monitoring in the form of invasive arterial, central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure monitoring may be required in seriously ill Intensive care unit patients, in patients undergoing surgeries involving gross hemodynamic changes and in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. These techniques are considered the gold standards of hemodynamic monitoring but are associated with their inherent risks. A number of non-invasive techniques based on various physical principles are under investigation at present. The goal is to not only avoid the risk of invasive intervention, but also to match the gold standard set by them as far as possible. Techniques based on photoplethysmography, arterial tonometry and pulse transit time analysis have come up for continuous arterial pressure monitoring. Of these the first has been studied most extensively and validated, however it has been shown to be substandard in patients with gross hemodynamic instability. The other two still need further evaluation. While the non-invasive methods for arterial blood pressure monitoring are based on diverse technologies, those for measurement of central venous and pulmonary pressures are mostly based on imaging techniques such as echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography scan and chest X ray. Most of these techniques are based on measurement of the dimensions of the great veins. This makes them operator and observer dependent. However, studies done till now have revealed adequate inter-observer agreement. These techniques are still in their incipience and although initial studies are encouraging, further research is needed on this front.

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          "Ultrasound comet-tail images": a marker of pulmonary edema: a comparative study with wedge pressure and extravascular lung water.

          Echographic examination of the lung surface may reveal multiple "comet-tail images" originating from water-thickened interlobular septa. These images could be useful for noninvasive assessment of interstitial pulmonary edema. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of lung comet-tail images compared with chest radiography, wedge pressure, and extravascular lung water (EVLW) quantified by the indicator dilution method (PiCCO System, version 4.1; Pulsion Medical Systems; Munich, Germany). We enrolled 20 patients (mean age, 62.6 +/- 11.5 years [+/- SD]). Patients were studied before, immediately after, and 24 h following cardiac surgery with chest ultrasound, chest radiography, pulmonary artery catheterization, and the PiCCO system. Performing echo scanning (right and left hemithorax, from second to fourth intercostal space, from parasternal to midaxillary line), an individual patient comet score was obtained by summing the number of comets in each scanned space. A total of 60 comparisons were obtained. Significant positive linear correlations were found between comet score and EVLW determined by the PiCCO System (r = 0.42, p = 0.001), between comet score and wedge pressure (r = 0.48, p = 0.01), and between comet score and radiologic lung water score (r = 0.60, p = 0.0001). The presence and the number of comet-tail images provide reliable information on interstitial pulmonary edema. Therefore, ultrasonography represent an attractive, easy-to-use, bedside diagnostic tool for assessing cardiac function and pulmonary congestion.
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            Radial artery cannulation: a comprehensive review of recent anatomic and physiologic investigations.

            Consistent anatomic accessibility, ease of cannulation, and a low rate of complications have made the radial artery the preferred site for arterial cannulation. Radial artery catheterization is a relatively safe procedure with an incidence of permanent ischemic complications of 0.09%. Although its anatomy in the forearm and the hand is variable, adequate collateral flow in the event of radial artery thrombosis is present in most patients. Harvesting of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting, advances in plastic and reconstructive surgery of the hand, and its use as an entry site for cardiac catheterization has provided new insight into the collateral blood flow to the hand and the impact of radial arterial instrumentation. The Modified Allen's Test has been the most frequently used method to clinically assess adequacy of ulnar artery collateral flow despite the lack of evidence that it can predict ischemic complications in the setting of radial artery occlusion. Doppler ultrasound can be used to evaluate collateral hand perfusion in an effort to stratify risk of potential ischemic injury from cannulation. Limited research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of heparinized flush solutions on arterial catheter patency but only in patients with prolonged monitoring (>24 h). Conservative management may be equally as effective as surgical intervention in treating ischemic complications resulting from radial artery cannulation. Limited clinical experience with the ultrasound-guided arterial cannulation method suggests that this technique is associated with increased success of cannulation with fewer attempts. Whether use of the latter technique is associated with a decrease in complications has not yet been verified in prospective studies. Research is needed to assess the safety of using the ulnar artery as an alternative to radial artery cannulation because the proximity and attachments of the ulnar artery to the ulnar nerve may potentially expose it to a higher risk of injury.
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              Intensivist use of hand-carried ultrasonography to measure IVC collapsibility in estimating intravascular volume status: correlations with CVP.

              Volume status assessment is an important aspect of patient management in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Echocardiologist-performed measurement of IVC collapsibility index (IVC-CI) provides useful information about filling pressures, but is limited by its portability, cost, and availability. Intensivist-performed bedside ultrasonography (INBU) examinations have the potential to overcome these impediments. We used INBU to evaluate hemodynamic status of SICU patients, focusing on correlations between IVC-CI and CVP. Prospective evaluation of hemodynamic status was conducted on a convenience sample of SICU patients with a brief (3 to 10 minutes) INBU examination. INBU examinations were performed by noncardiologists after 3 hours of didactics in interpreting and acquiring two-dimensional and M-mode images, and > or =25 proctored examinations. IVC-CI measurements were compared with invasive CVP values. Of 124 enrolled patients, 101 had CVP catheters (55 men, mean age 58.3 years, 44.6% intubated). Of these, 18 patients had uninterpretable INBU examinations, leaving 83 patients with both CVP monitoring devices and INBU IVC evaluations. Patients in three IVC-CI ranges ( 0.60) demonstrated significant decrease in mean CVP as IVC-CI increased (p = 0.023). Although 40% of this group had a CVP >12 mmHg. Conversely, >60% of patients with IVC-CI >0.6 had CVP 0.60) collapsibility ranges. Additional studies are needed to confirm and expand on findings of this study.

                Author and article information

                Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci
                Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci
                International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Apr-Jun 2014
                : 4
                : 2
                : 168-177
                [1]Department of Anaesthesia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India
                [1 ]Department of Anaesthesia, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
                [2 ]Department of Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, and President, International Soc Periop Care of Obese Patient, USA
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Preet Mohinder Singh, Department of Anaesthesia, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. E-mail: Preetrajpal@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Symposium: Current Concepts in Critical Care

                Emergency medicine & Trauma
                non-invasive central venous pressure measurement,non-invasive monitoring in intensive care unit,non-invasive pulmonary capillary wedge pressure


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