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      Portugal’s trees of public interest: their role in botany awareness Translated title: Arbres de remarquable intérêt public: leur rôle dans la sensibilisation de la botanique Translated title: Arvoredo de interesse público: papel na promoção da botânica Translated title: Arbolado de interés público de Portugal: su papel en la conciencia botánica

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          Abstract

          Based on the classification processes, from 1939 to 2012, of the National Registry for Trees of Public Interest, from the Institute for Nature Conservation and Forests, it was verified that of the 278 municipalities, corresponding to the five Regions of Tourism of mainland Portugal, 130 municipalities do not have classification processes. Considering that is an environmental but also a social gap, the authors understand it is necessary to contribute to the social understanding of monumental trees through the promotion of scientific culture in botany, as an important means to emphasize its value as an endogenous differentiation element of each region. It is also intended to mobilize the general public, to identify and propose the classification of trees with monumental characteristics.

          Translated abstract

          Ayant comme base les processus de classification de 1939 à 2012 du Registre national d’Arbres d'Intérêt Public del'Institut de Conservation de la Nature et des Forêts, nous avons vérifié que, des 278 municipalit és correspondant aux cinq régions de Tourisme du Portugal Continental, 130 ne disposent pas de processus de classification. Une fois que nous considérons qu'il s'agit d'une lacune, non seulement environnementale mais aussi sociale, nous ressentons le besoin de contribuer à la compréhension sociale des arbres remarquables à travers des activités de promotion de la culture scientifique, dans le domaine de la botanique, comme un moyen important pour souligner sa valeur en tant qu'élément de différenciation endogène des régions.

          Translated abstract

          Com base nos processos de classificação, compreendidos entre 1939 e 2012, do Registo Nacional do Arvoredo de Interesse Público, do Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas, verificou-se que dos 278 municí pios, correspondentes às cinco Regiões de Turismo de Portugal Continental, 130 municípios não possuem processos de classificação. Por se considerar ser esta uma lacuna, não só em termos ambientais, como sociais, sentimos a necessidade de contribuir para a compreensão social do arvoredo monumental, através da realização de atividades de promoção da cultura científica, na área da Botânica, como um importante meio para enfatizar o seu valor como elemento de diferenciação endógena das regiões. Também se pretende mobilizar o público em geral, para identificar e propor para classificação árvores com características monumentais.

          Translated abstract

          Con base en los procesos de clasificación, entre 1939 y 2012, del Registro Nacional de Árboles de Interés Público, por parte del Instituto de Conservación de la Naturaleza y de los Bosques, se verificó que, de los 278 municipios, correspondientes a las cinco Regiones Turísticas de Portugal Continental, 130 municipios no cuentan con un proceso de clasificación. Considerando que esto representa una brecha ambiental y también social, los autores creen que es necesario contribuir al conocimiento social de los árboles monumentales, a través de la realización de actividades de promoción de la cultura científica en Botánica, como un importante medio para enfatizar su valor como un elemento endógeno diferenciado de cada región.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

          Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.
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            Physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the atmosphere of the forest) in an old-growth broadleaf forest in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan.

            The physiological effects of "Shinrin-yoku" (taking in the atmosphere of the forest) were examined by investigating blood pressure, pulse rate, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol concentration, and immunoglobulin A concentration in saliva. Subjective feelings of being "comfortable", "calm", and "refreshed" were also assessed by questionnaire. The subjects were 12 male university students aged from 21 to 23 (mean+/-SD: 22.0+/-1.0). The physiological measurements were conducted six times, i.e., in the morning and evening before meals at the place of accommodation, before and after the subjects walked a predetermined course in the forest and city areas for 15 minutes, and before and after they sat still on a chair watching the scenery in the respective areas for 15 minutes. The findings were as follows. In the forest area compared to the city area, 1) blood pressure and pulse rate were significantly lower, and 2) the power of the HF component of the HRV tended to be higher and LF/(LF+HF) tended to be lower. Also, 3) salivary cortisol concentration was significantly lower in the forest area. These physiological responses suggest that sympathetic nervous activity was suppressed and parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced in the forest area, and that "Shinrin-yoku" reduced stress levels. In the subjective evaluation, 4) "comfortable", "calm", and "refreshed" feelings were significantly higher in the forest area. The present study has, by conducting physiological investigations with subjective evaluations as supporting evidence, demonstrated the relaxing and stress-relieving effects of "Shinrin-yoku".
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              External Characteristics of Old Trees in the Eastern Deciduous Forest

               Neil Pederson (2010)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                fin
                Finisterra - Revista Portuguesa de Geografia
                Finisterra
                Centro de Estudos Geográficos (Lisboa, , Portugal )
                0430-5027
                April 2019
                : 110
                : 19-36
                Affiliations
                Aveiro orgnameUniversity of Aveiro orgdiv1Education Department and Psychology orgdiv2Biology Department and at Didactics and Technology in Education of Trainers Research Centre Portugal raquellopes@ 123456ua.pt
                Coimbra orgnameUniversity of Coimbra orgdiv1Department of Life Sciences orgdiv2Science Communication at the Centre for Funcional Ecology Portugal catarina.reis@ 123456exploratorio.pt
                Article
                S0430-50272019000100002
                10.18055/Finis14564

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 18
                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Portugal

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