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      Social media addiction and sexual dysfunction among Iranian women: The mediating role of intimacy and social support

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Social media use has become increasingly popular among Internet users. Given the widespread use of social media on smartphones, there is an increasing need for research examining the impact of the use of such technologies on sexual relationships and their constructs such as intimacy, satisfaction, and sexual function. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism why social media addiction impacts on sexual distress. This study investigated whether two constructs (intimacy and perceived social support) were mediators in the association of social media addiction and sexual distress among married women.

          Methods

          A prospective study was conducted where all participants ( N = 938; mean age = 36.5 years) completed the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale to assess social media addiction, the Female Sexual Distress Scale – Revised to assess sexual distress, the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale to assess intimacy, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support to assess perceived social support.

          Results

          The results showed that social media addiction had direct and indirect (via intimacy and perceived social support) effects on sexual function and sexual distress.

          Discussion and conclusions

          The findings of this study facilitate a better understanding of how problematic engaging to social media can affect couples’ intimacy, perceived social support, and constructs of sexual function. Consequently, sexual counseling should be considered an essential element for assessing individual behaviors in the context of social media use.

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          Most cited references 48

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          The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

          Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted.
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            The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version

            Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument to measure psychological morbidity in cancer patients. This study aimed to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the HADS. Methods The English language version of the HADS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 167 breast cancer patients and statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the HADS. Results In general the Iranian version of the HADS was found to be acceptable to almost all patients (99%). Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) has been found to be 0.78 for the HADS anxiety sub-scale and 0.86 for the HADS depression sub-scale. Validity as performed using known groups comparison analysis showed satisfactory results. Both anxiety and depression sub-scales discriminated well between sub-groups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their disease stage. Conclusion This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the HADS proved that it is an acceptable, a reliable and valid measure of psychological distress among cancer patients.
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              Sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in midlife and older couples in five countries.

              Sexuality research focuses almost exclusively on individuals rather than couples, though ongoing relationships are very important for most people and cultures. The present study was the first to examine sexual and relationship parameters of middle-aged and older couples in committed relationships of 1-51 years duration. Survey research was conducted in Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, and the U.S. targeting 200 men aged 40-70 and their female partners in each country, with 1,009 couples in the final sample. Key demographic, health, physical intimacy, sexual behavior, sexual function, and sexual history variables were used to model relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction. The median ages were 55 for men and 52 for women; median relationship duration was 25 years. Relationship satisfaction in men depended on health, physical intimacy, and sexual functioning, while in women only sexual functioning predicted relationship satisfaction. Models predicting sexual satisfaction included significant physical intimacy and sexual functioning for both genders and, for men, more frequent recent sexual activity and fewer lifetime partners. Longer relationship duration predicted greater relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction for men. However, women in relationships of 20 to 40 years were significantly less likely than men to report relationship happiness. Compared to men, women showed lower sexual satisfaction early in the relationship and greater sexual satisfaction later. Within the long-term committed relationship context, there were significant gender differences in correlates of sexual and relationship satisfaction, with sexual functioning a common predictor of both types of satisfaction and physical intimacy a more consistent and salient predictor for men.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                23 May 2019
                June 2019
                : 8
                : 2
                : 318-325
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences , Qazvin, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , Hung Hom, Hong Kong
                [3 ]Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                [4 ]International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University , Nottingham, UK
                [5 ]Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University , Jönköping, Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Assoc. Prof. Amir H. Pakpour, PhD; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Bahounar BLV, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran; Phone/Fax: +98 28 33239259; E-mail: Pakpour_Amir@ 123456yahoo.com ; apakpour@ 123456qums.ac.ir
                Article
                10.1556/2006.8.2019.24
                7044549
                31120317
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 58, Pages: 8
                Product
                Funding
                Funding sources: None.
                Categories
                Full-Length Report

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