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      A 26-Week Analysis of a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 ® in Dementia

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          Abstract

          This intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed to provide a realistic image of the efficacy that could be expected after 26 weeks treatment with a 120-mg dose (40 mg t.i.d.) of EGb 761<sup>®</sup> (EGb). The data were collected during a 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed dose, parallel-group, multicenter study. Patients were mildly to severely impaired and diagnosed with uncomplicated Alzheimer’s disease or multi-infarct dementia according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R criteria. The primary outcome measures included the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), Geriatric Evaluation by Relative’s Rating Instrument (GERRI) and Clinical Global Impression of Change. From 309 patients included in the ITT analysis, 244 patients (76% for placebo and 73% for EGb) actually reached the 26th week visit. In comparison to the baseline values, the placebo group showed a statistically significant worsening in all domains of assessment, while the group receiving EGb was considered slightly improved on the cognitive assessment and the daily living and social behavior. Mean treatment differences favored EGb with 1.3 and 0.12 points, respectively, on the ADAS-Cog (p = 0.04) and the GERRI (p = 0.007). In the group receiving EGb, 26% of the patients achieved at least a 4-point improvement on the ADAS-Cog, compared to 17% with placebo (p = 0.04). On the GERRI, 30% of the EGb group improved and 17% worsened, while the placebo group showed an opposite trend with 37% of patients worsening for 25% improved (p = 0.006). Regarding safety, no differences between EGb and placebo were observed.

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          A 30-week randomized controlled trial of high-dose tacrine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The Tacrine Study Group.

          To evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-dose tacrine hydrochloride over 30 weeks in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. A 30-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Outpatients at 33 US centers. Men and women at least 50 years of age with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and otherwise in good health. Group 1 received placebo; group 2 received 40 mg/d of tacrine for 6 weeks, then 80 mg/d for 24 weeks; groups 3 and 4 received 40 mg/d of tacrine for 6 weeks, 80 mg/d for 6 weeks, and 120 mg/d for 6 weeks. Group 3 remained on a dosage of 120 mg/d for a total of 18 weeks; after 6 weeks at 120 mg/d, group 4 titrated to 160 mg/d for the last 12 weeks. Clinician Interview-Based Impression (CIBI), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale--Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), and Final Comprehensive Consensus Assessment (FCCA). A total of 663 patients entered the study; 653 patients were included in an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis; 263 had evaluable data at 30 weeks. The results of the ITT analysis revealed significant (P < or = .05) dose-response trends and between-group comparisons on CIBI and ADAS-Cog. In evaluable patients, significant dose-response trends were observed for all three primary measures (P < or = .001). Significant differences in favor of 160 mg/d of tacrine vs placebo were observed on the CIBI (P < or = .002) and ADAS-Cog and FCCA (P < or = .001), as well as caregiver-global and quality-of-life assessments (P < or = .05). On the CIBI, 23% and 42% of tacrine-treated patients in the ITT and evaluable-patient populations, respectively, were rated improved compared with 17% and 18% of placebo patients, respectively. The primary reasons for withdrawal of tacrine-treated patients were asymptomatic liver transaminase elevations (28%) and gastrointestinal complaints (16%). These adverse events were reversible on discontinuation of treatment, and many patients were able to restart tacrine. Tacrine produced statistically significant, dose-related improvements on objective performance-based tests, clinician- and caregiver-rated global evaluations, and measures of quality of life. There was no evidence that the large number of patient withdrawals biased the overall conclusions of the study.
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            A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group

             P L Le Bars (1997)
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              DEM
              Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
              10.1159/issn.1420-8008
              Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
              S. Karger AG
              1420-8008
              1421-9824
              2000
              August 2000
              21 June 2000
              : 11
              : 4
              : 230-237
              Affiliations
              aMemory Centers of America Inc., bHZI Research Center, NeuroCorp Ltd, Elmsford, New York, N.Y., USA, and cDr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany
              Article
              17242 Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;11:230–237
              10.1159/000017242
              10867450
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Tables: 7, References: 22, Pages: 8
              Categories
              Original Research Article

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