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      Recent Insights into the Cell Biology of Bladder Smooth Muscle

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      Growth factors, Phenotypic modulation, Smooth muscle, Signal transduction

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Much of current biomedical research is focused on the development of ‘targeted therapies’ based on detailed knowledge about the signals that mediate aberrant cellular behavior in a given disease. Although this concept has been used most widely in cancer treatment, the same strategy applies to nonmalignant conditions such as pathologic tissue expansion in the genitourinary tract. A rigorous understanding of the key molecular events and pathways that underlie normal and pathologic activity of the bladder would allow us to identify potential targets for rational drug design. In this review, I will summarize our current understanding of cell signaling in bladder smooth muscle and highlight potential targets for drug-based treatment of tissue remodeling in the lower urinary tract.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Pleiotropic effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitors.

          The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors or statins are potent inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. Several large clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of statins in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. However, the overall clinical benefits observed with statin therapy appear to be greater than what might be expected from changes in lipid profile alone, suggesting that the beneficial effects of statins may extend beyond their effects on serum cholesterol levels. Indeed, recent experimental and clinical evidence indicates that some of the cholesterol-independent or "pleiotropic" effects of statins involve improving or restoring endothelial function, enhancing the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, and decreasing oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. Many of these pleiotropic effects of statins are mediated by their ability to block the synthesis of important isoprenoid intermediates, which serve as lipid attachments for a variety of intracellular signaling molecules. In particular, the inhibition of small GTP-binding proteins, Rho, Ras, and Rac, whose proper membrane localization and function are dependent on isoprenylation, may play an important role in mediating the direct cellular effects of statins on the vascular wall.
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            Myocardin is a key regulator of CArG-dependent transcription of multiple smooth muscle marker genes.

            The interactions between serum response factor (SRF) and CArG elements are critical for smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene transcription. However, the mechanisms whereby SRF, which is expressed ubiquitously, contributes to SMC-specific transcription are unknown. Myocardin was recently cloned as a coactivator of SRF in the heart, but its role in regulating CArG-dependent expression of SMC differentiation marker genes has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we examined the expression and the function of myocardin in SMCs. In adult mice, myocardin mRNA was expressed in multiple smooth muscle (SM) tissues including the aorta, bladder, stomach, intestine, and colon, as well as the heart. Myocardin was also expressed in cultured rat aortic SMCs and A404 SMC precursor cells. Of particular interest, expression of myocardin was induced during differentiation of A404 cells, although it was not expressed in parental P19 cells from which A404 cells were derived. Cotransfection studies in SMCs revealed that myocardin induced the activity of multiple SMC marker gene promoters including SM alpha-actin, SM-myosin heavy chain, and SM22alpha by 9- to 60-fold in a CArG-dependent manner, whereas myocardin short interfering RNA markedly decreased activity of these promoters. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant-negative form of myocardin significantly suppressed expression of endogenous SMC marker genes, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type myocardin increased expression. Taken together, results provide compelling evidence that myocardin plays a key role as a transcriptional coactivator of SMC marker genes through CArG-dependent mechanisms.
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              Geranylgeranylated rho small GTPase(s) are essential for the degradation of p27Kip1 and facilitate the progression from G1 to S phase in growth-stimulated rat FRTL-5 cells.

              Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes are activated for entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. Elimination of Cdk inhibitor protein p27Kip1 during the G1 to S phase is required for the activation process. An inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase prevents its elimination and leads to G1 arrest. Mevalonate and its metabolite, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not farnesyl pyrophosphate, restore the inhibitory effect of pravastatin on the degradation of p27 and allow Cdk2 activation. By the addition of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, Rho small GTPase(s) are geranylgeranylated and translocated to membranes during G1/S progression. The restoring effect of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is abolished with botulinum C3 exoenzyme, which specifically inactivates Rho. These results indicate (i) among mevalonate metabolites, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is absolutely required for the elimination of p27 followed by Cdk2 activation; (ii) geranylgeranylated Rho small GTPase(s) promote the degradation of p27 during G1/S transition in FRTL-5 cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2006
                January 2006
                22 September 2005
                : 102
                : 1
                : e1-e7
                Affiliations
                Urological Diseases Research Center, Department of Urology, Children’s Hospital Boston and Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                88310 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;102:e1–e7
                10.1159/000088310
                16179802
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 35, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/88310
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