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      Reproduction of the Atlantic Forest endemic star-throated antwren, Rhopias gularis (Aves: Thamnophilidae) Translated title: Reprodução da choquinha-de-garganta-pintada, Rhopias gularis (Aves: Thamnophilidae), uma espécie endêmica da Mata Atlântica

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          Abstract

          Abstract The Thamnophilidae are one of the most speciose Neotropical bird families, yet aspects of their natural history remain poorly documented. Here we provide information on breeding phenology, the length of incubation and nestling periods, parental care, and nesting success of the Star-throated Antwren, Rhopias gularis, an Atlantic Forest endemic. The data are discussed in light of life history theories. We found 27 active nests during two breeding seasons (2013/2014 and 2014/2015) at Carlos Botelho State Park in southeastern Brazil. Nesting activities were observed from September to January. Incubation and nestling periods lasted 16.8 ± 0.6 and 11.0 ± 0.86 days, respectively, as with most other antbirds. Males and females shared equally in incubation and nestling provisioning. The small clutch size of two eggs is that most commonly found in tropical birds and is hypothesized to have evolved due to increased nest predation rates. However, our data was not consistent with this hypothesis as the nest survival probability was high (57%). This is one of only a handful of studies that provide comprehensive information on the breeding biology of a Thamnophilid species in undisturbed habitat.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo A Família Thamnophilidae compreende as diversas espécies de chocas e papa-formigas e compõem um dos maiores grupos de aves neotropicais. Apesar do elevado número de espécies, aspectos da história natural permanecem pouco documentados. No presente estudo são fornecidas informações sobre fenologia reprodutiva, duração dos períodos de incubação e permanência dos filhotes no ninho, cuidado parental e sucesso reprodutivo da choquinha-de-garganta-pintada, Rhopias gularis, endêmica da Mata Atlântica, enfocando teorias de história de vida. Foram encontrados 27 ninhos ativos durante duas temporadas reprodutivas (2013/2014 e 2014/2015) no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, no sudeste do Brasil. Atividades de nidificação foram observadas de setembro a janeiro. Períodos de incubação e permanência dos filhotes nos ninhos duraram 16.8 ± 0.6 e 11.0 ± 0.86 dias, respectivamente, sendo similares aos de outras chocas e papa-formigas. Machos e fêmeas dividiram as funções de incubação e alimentação dos ninhegos em taxas similares. As ninhadas de dois ovos seguem o padrão mais comum para Passseriformes tropicais, mas os dados apresentados não se mostraram consistentes com a hipótese de que a evolução de ninhadas menores está relacionada às altas taxa de predação de ninhos nesta região, uma vez que foi observada alta probabilidade de sobrevivência (57%). O presente estudo é um dos poucos a proporcionar informações abrangentes sobre a biologia reprodutiva de um Thamnophilidae em uma área preservada.

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          Most cited references 35

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              Prevalence of different modes of parental care in birds.

              Estimates of the incidence of major classes of parental care by birds are drawn from classical studies that preceded both the publication of a massive secondary literature and the revolution driven by molecular approaches to avian phylogeny. Here, I review this literature in the light of new phylogenetic hypotheses and estimate the prevalence of six distinct modes of care: use of geothermal heat to incubate eggs, brood parasitism, male only care, female only care, biparental care and cooperative breeding. Female only care and cooperative breeding are more common than has previously been recognized, occurring in 8 and 9% of species, respectively. Biparental care by a pair-bonded male and female is the most common pattern of care but at 81% of species, the pattern is less common than once believed. I identify several problems with existing hypotheses for the evolution of parental care and highlight a number of poorly understood contrasts which, once resolved, should help elucidate avian social evolution.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bjb
                Brazilian Journal of Biology
                Braz. J. Biol.
                Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
                1678-4375
                2016
                : 0
                : 0
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de São Carlos Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de São Carlos Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal de São Carlos Brazil
                Article
                S1519-69842016005120106
                10.1590/1519-6984.14715

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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