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      Cymbalcloeon gen. nov., an incredible new mayfly genus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Thailand

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          Abstract

          The genus Cymbalcloeon gen. nov. (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is established for a new species Cymbalcloeon sartorii sp. nov. from Thailand, based on larval stage. This genus is unique among all of the Baetidae by the presence of three pairs of single gills on segments V–VII, ventrally oriented to cover the sterna VI–IX. Cymbalcloeon sartorii gen. nov. et sp. nov. presents unique or rare morphological characters such as a deeply concave margin between the prostheca and mola, without setae; a very large subtriangular process of the left mandible; a maxillary palp segment II with scarce and very long setae; almost completely fused labial palp segments II and III with numerous very long setae; elongate tarsal claw with two rows of teeth; a shagreen surface of the terga and paraproct; and a very reduced body size. The gills of the new genus move very quickly during respiration and present a near-synchronous protraction. Due to the very derived larval morphological character and the unknown imaginal stage, the exact phylogenetic position of the genus remains unclear; it most certainly belongs to the concept of Anteropatellata and is possibly closely related to the genus Baetopus.

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          Most cited references 16

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          The family Baetidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera): synthesis and future challenges

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            Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and Their Contributions to Ecosystem Services

            This work is intended as a general and concise overview of Ephemeroptera biology, diversity, and services provided to humans and other parts of our global array of freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The Ephemeroptera, or mayflies, are a small but diverse order of amphinotic insects associated with liquid freshwater worldwide. They are nearly cosmopolitan, except for Antarctica and some very remote islands. The existence of the subimago stage is unique among extant insects. Though the winged stages do not have functional mouthparts or digestive systems, the larval, or nymphal, stages have a variety of feeding approaches—including, but not limited to, collector-gatherers, filterers, scrapers, and active predators—with each supported by a diversity of morphological and behavioral adaptations. Mayflies provide direct and indirect services to humans and other parts of both freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. In terms of cultural services, they have provided inspiration to musicians, poets, and other writers, as well as being the namesakes of various water- and aircraft. They are commemorated by festivals worldwide. Mayflies are especially important to fishing. Mayflies contribute to the provisioning services of ecosystems in that they are utilized as food by human cultures worldwide (having one of the highest protein contents of any edible insect), as laboratory organisms, and as a potential source of antitumor molecules. They provide regulatory services through their cleaning of freshwater. They provide many essential supporting services for ecosystems such as bioturbation, bioirrigation, decomposition, nutrition for many kinds of non-human animals, nutrient cycling and spiraling in freshwaters, nutrient cycling between aquatic and terrestrial systems, habitat for other organisms, and serving as indicators of ecosystem health. About 20% of mayfly species worldwide might have a threatened conservation status due to influences from pollution, invasive alien species, habitat loss and degradation, and climate change. Even mitigation of negative influences has benefits and tradeoffs, as, in several cases, sustainable energy production negatively impacts mayflies.
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              The incredible diversity of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in New Guinea revealed by integrative taxonomy ( Ephemeroptera , Baetidae )

              Abstract Material collected between 1999 and 2011 in Papua New Guinea and the Papua Province of Indonesia unveiled the enormous diversity of Labiobaetis on this island. Twenty-six new species were identified and delimited by integrative taxonomy using genetic distance (COI, Kimura-2-parameter) and morphology. These new species are described and illustrated based on larvae, augmenting the total number of Labiobaetis species on the island of New Guinea to 32. Seven morpho-groups of species are proposed based on morphological characters and a key to all New Guinea species is provided. The generic attributes of the larvae are summarised and slightly modified based on the examinations of the new species. Results on the genetics of most species (COI) are also provided. The interspecific K2P distances are between 13% and 32%, the intraspecific distances usually between 0% and 2%. Possible reasons for the remarkable richness of this genus in New Guinea are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                13 October 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Animal Systematics and Ecology Speciality Research Unit (ASESRU), Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
                [2 ] Museum of Zoology, Lausanne, Switzerland
                [3 ] Department of Ecology and Evolution, Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland
                Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, FRANCE
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: NO-The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-22837
                10.1371/journal.pone.0240635
                7553360
                33048998
                © 2020 Suttinun et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Science Achievement Scholarship of Thailand (SAST)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Centre of Excellence on Biodiversity (BDC) Office of Higher Education Commission
                Award ID: BDC-PG2-161004
                Award Recipient :
                The first author (CS) was funded by a Science Achievement Scholarship of Thailand (SAST). BB has been supported by the Centre of Excellence on Biodiversity (BDC) Office of Higher Education Commission (BDC-PG2-161004) and Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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