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      Overhydration Measured by Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Urinary Serine Protease Activity Are Risk Factors for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Background: Overhydration (OH) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and might be related to the excretion of urinary serine proteases. Progression of CKD is associated with proteinuria; however, the interrelations of urinary serine proteases, OH, and progression of CKD remain unclear. Methods: In n = 179 patients with stable nondialysis-dependent CKD of all stages, OH was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy (Body Composition Monitor; Fresenius), and urinary serine protease activity was determined using the peptide substrate S-2302. After a median follow-up of 5.9 (IQR: 3.9–6.5) years, progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was analyzed retrospectively. Results: OH correlated with baseline MDRD-eGFR, urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), and urinary aprotinin-sensitive serine protease activity. Progression to ESRD occurred in n = 33 patients (19%) and correlated with OH and urinary serine protease activity as well as MDRD-eGFR and ACR. Patients were divided into 2 groups determined by cutoff values from receiver operating characteristics for MDRD-eGFR (32 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>), ACR (43 mg/g creatinine), urinary serine protease activity (0.9 RU/g creatinine), and OH (1 L/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>). Across these cutoff values, Kaplan-Meier curves for renal survival showed significant separations of the groups. In Cox regression adjusted for MDRD-eGFR, ACR, P-NT-pro-BNP, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus, patients with OH >1 L/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> had a 3.32 (95% CI: 1.26–8.76)-fold higher risk for progression to ESRD. Conclusions: Our results corroborate that OH detected by bioimpedance spectroscopy in CKD patients is an independent risk factor for progression to ESRD in addition to GFR and albuminuria. Urinary serine protease activity is associated with OH and progression of CKD and provides a possible underlying mechanism.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts.

          We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected for CKD of diverse etiology. After adjustment for potential confounders and albuminuria, we found that a 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² lower eGFR below a threshold of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m² was significantly associated with mortality and ESRD (pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.47 and 6.24, respectively). There was significant heterogeneity between studies for both HR estimates. After adjustment for risk factors and eGFR, an eightfold higher albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with mortality (pooled HR 1.40) without evidence of significant heterogeneity and with ESRD (pooled HR 3.04), with significant heterogeneity between HR estimates. Lower eGFR and more severe albuminuria independently predict mortality and ESRD among individuals selected for CKD, with the associations stronger for ESRD than for mortality. Thus, these relationships are consistent with CKD stage classifications based on eGFR and suggest that albuminuria provides additional prognostic information among individuals with CKD.
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            GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration.

            The US Food and Drug Administration currently accepts halving of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), assessed as doubling of serum creatinine level, as a surrogate end point for the development of kidney failure in clinical trials of kidney disease progression. A doubling of serum creatinine level generally is a late event in chronic kidney disease (CKD); thus, there is great interest in considering alternative end points for clinical trials to shorten their duration, reduce sample size, and extend their conduct to patients with earlier stages of CKD. However, the relationship between lesser declines in GFR and the subsequent development of kidney failure has not been well characterized. The National Kidney Foundation and Food and Drug Administration sponsored a scientific workshop to critically examine available data to determine whether alternative GFR-based end points have sufficiently strong relationships with important clinical outcomes of CKD to be used in clinical trials. Based on a series of meta-analyses of cohorts and clinical trials and simulations of trial designs and analytic methods, the workshop concluded that a confirmed decline in estimated GFR of 30% over 2 to 3 years may be an acceptable surrogate end point in some circumstances, but the pattern of treatment effects on GFR must be examined, specifically acute effects on estimated GFR. An estimated GFR decline of 40% may be more broadly acceptable than a 30% decline across a wider range of baseline GFRs and patterns of treatment effects on GFR. However, there are other circumstances in which these end points could lead to a reduction in statistical power or erroneous conclusions regarding benefits or harms of interventions. We encourage careful consideration of these alternative end points in the design of future clinical trials.
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              Volume overload correlates with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease.

              Volume overload is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. However, the fluid status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but not yet on dialysis has not been accurately characterized. We used the Body Composition Monitor, a multifrequency bioimpedance device, to measure the level of overhydration in CKD patients, focusing on the association between overhydration and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Overhydration was the difference between the amount of extracellular water measured by the Body Composition Monitor and the amount of water predicted under healthy euvolemic conditions. Volume overload was defined as an overhydration value at and above the 90th percentile for the normal population. Of the 338 patients with stages 3-5 CKD, only 48% were euvolemic. Patients with volume overload were found to use significantly more antihypertensive medications and diuretics but had higher systolic blood pressures and an increased arterial stiffness than patients without volume overload. In a multivariate analysis, male sex, diabetes, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, systolic blood pressure, serum albumin, TNF-α, and proteinuria were independently all associated with overhydration. Thus, volume overload is strongly associated with both traditional and novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Bioimpedance devices may aid in clinical assessment by helping to identify a high-risk group with volume overload among stages 3-5 CKD patients.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                02 December 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 955-968
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Diabetology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
                bInstitute of Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases (IDM) of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
                cGerman Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Tübingen, Germany
                Author notes
                *Anja Schork, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nephrology, University Hospital Tübingen, Otfried-Müller-St. 10, DE–72076 Tübingen (Germany),
                510649 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:955–968
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 5, Pages: 14
                Research Article


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