Ontogenetic differentiation of the GnRH-immunoreactive (GnRHir) neuron system was studied in the clawed toad Xenopus laevis by immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies against mammalian GnRH and chicken type II GnRH, and monoclonal antibodies against GnRH exhibiting wide cross-reactivity over animal classes. Toads at different stages of differentiation as well as postmetamorphic toads subjected to uni- or bilateral ablation of the olfactory placode (OPX) between developmental stages 25 and 30 were studied. GnRHir neurons and nerve fibers could not be detected before metamorphosis. Following metamorphosis, at stage 65–66, hemi-OPX toads did not exhibit any side differences in the number and overall distribution of the GnRHir neuronal structures; however, the total number of GnRHir neurons was approximately 50% of that counted in intact controls at the same developmental stages. These findings indicate that GnRHir neuroblasts differentiating on one side in the olfactory placode can appear on both sides of the brain in the course of their migration.