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      Dyslipidaemia in nephrotic syndrome: mechanisms and treatment

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      Nature Reviews Nephrology

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Nephrotic syndrome is a highly prevalent disease that is associated with high morbidity despite notable advances in its treatment. Many of the complications of nephrotic syndrome, including the increased risk of atherosclerosis and thromboembolism, can be linked to dysregulated lipid metabolism and dyslipidaemia. These abnormalities include elevated plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and the apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins VLDL and IDL; decreased lipoprotein lipase activity in the endothelium, muscle and adipose tissues; decreased hepatic lipase activity; and increased levels of the enzyme PCSK9. In addition, there is an increase in the plasma levels of immature HDL particles and reduced cholesterol efflux. Studies from the past few years have markedly improved our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome-associated dyslipidaemia, and also heightened our awareness of the associated exacerbated risks of cardiovascular complications, progressive kidney disease and thromboembolism. Despite the absence of clear guidelines regarding treatment, various strategies are being increasingly utilized, including statins, bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, nicotinic acid and ezetimibe, as well as lipid apheresis, which seem to also induce partial or complete clinical remission of nephrotic syndrome in a substantial percentage of patients. Future potential treatments will likely also include inhibition of PCSK9 using recently-developed anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies and small inhibitory RNAs, as well as targeting newly identified molecular regulators of lipid metabolism that are dysregulated in nephrotic syndrome.

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          Most cited references 105

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          Ezetimibe, a cholesterol-absorption inhibitor, reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol when added to statin treatment. However, the effect of ezetimibe on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unknown. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, 24-month trial comparing the effects of daily therapy with 80 mg of simvastatin either with placebo or with 10 mg of ezetimibe in 720 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Patients underwent B-mode ultrasonography to assess the intima-media thickness of the walls of the carotid and femoral arteries. The primary outcome measure was the change in the mean carotid-artery intima-media thickness, which was defined as the average of the means of the far-wall intima-media thickness of the right and left common carotid arteries, carotid bulbs, and internal carotid arteries. The primary outcome, the mean (+/-SE) change in the carotid-artery intima-media thickness, was 0.0058+/-0.0037 mm in the simvastatin-only group and 0.0111+/-0.0038 mm in the simvastatin-plus-ezetimibe (combined-therapy) group (P=0.29). Secondary outcomes (consisting of other variables regarding the intima-media thickness of the carotid and femoral arteries) did not differ significantly between the two groups. At the end of the study, the mean (+/-SD) LDL cholesterol level was 192.7+/-60.3 mg per deciliter (4.98+/-1.56 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin group and 141.3+/-52.6 mg per deciliter (3.65+/-1.36 mmol per liter) in the combined-therapy group (a between-group difference of 16.5%, P<0.01). The differences between the two groups in reductions in levels of triglycerides and C-reactive protein were 6.6% and 25.7%, respectively, with greater reductions in the combined-therapy group (P<0.01 for both comparisons). Side-effect and safety profiles were similar in the two groups. In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, combined therapy with ezetimibe and simvastatin did not result in a significant difference in changes in intima-media thickness, as compared with simvastatin alone, despite decreases in levels of LDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00552097 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Role of HDL, ABCA1, and ABCG1 transporters in cholesterol efflux and immune responses.

            Atherosclerosis has been characterized as a chronic inflammatory response to cholesterol deposition in arteries, but the mechanisms linking cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells to inflammation are poorly understood. Macrophage cholesterol efflux occurs at all stages of atherosclerosis and protects cells from free cholesterol and oxysterol-induced toxicity. The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are responsible for the major part of macrophage cholesterol efflux to serum or HDL in macrophage foam cells, but other less efficient pathways such as passive efflux are also involved. Recent studies have shown that the sterol efflux activities of ABCA1 and ABCG1 modulate macrophage expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as lymphocyte proliferative responses. In macrophages, transporter deficiency causes increased signaling via various Toll-like receptors including TLR4. These studies have shown that the traditional roles of HDL and ABC transporters in cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport are mechanistically linked to antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive functions of HDL. The underlying mechanisms may involve modulation of sterol levels and lipid organization in cell membranes.
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              Rituximab targets podocytes in recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

              Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a glomerular disease characterized by proteinuria, progression to end-stage renal disease, and recurrence of proteinuria after kidney transplantation in about one-third of patients. It has been suggested that rituximab might treat recurrent FSGS through an unknown mechanism. Rituximab not only recognizes CD20 on B lymphocytes, but might also bind sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL-3b) protein and regulate acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity. We hypothesized that rituximab prevents recurrent FSGS and preserves podocyte SMPDL-3b expression. We studied 41 patients at high risk for recurrent FSGS, 27 of whom were treated with rituximab at time of kidney transplant. SMPDL-3b protein, ASMase activity, and cytoskeleton remodeling were studied in cultured normal human podocytes that had been exposed to patient sera with or without rituximab. Rituximab treatment was associated with lower incidence of posttransplant proteinuria and stabilization of glomerular filtration rate. The number of SMPDL-3b(+) podocytes in postreperfusion biopsies was reduced in patients who developed recurrent FSGS. Rituximab partially prevented SMPDL-3b and ASMase down-regulation that was observed in podocytes treated with the sera of patients with recurrent FSGS. Overexpression of SMPDL-3b or treatment with rituximab was able to prevent disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and podocyte apoptosis induced by patient sera. This effect was diminished in cultured podocytes where SMPDL-3b was silenced. Our study suggests that treatment of high-risk patients with rituximab at time of kidney transplant might prevent recurrent FSGS by modulating podocyte function in an SMPDL-3b-dependent manner.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Nephrology
                Nat Rev Nephrol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5061
                1759-507X
                November 27 2017
                November 27 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrneph.2017.155
                5770189
                29176657
                © 2017

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