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      Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA to Assess Genetic Diversity and Structure of NaturalCalophyllum brasiliense(Clusiaceae) Populations in Riparian Forests

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          Abstract

          The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability in two natural populations of Calophyllum brasilienselocated along two different rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using RAPD molecular markers. Eighty-two polymorphic fragments were amplified using 27 primers. The values obtained for Shannon index ( I ) were 0.513 and 0.530 for the populations located on the margins of the Rio Grande and Rio das Mortes, respectively, demonstrating the high genetic diversity in the studied populations. Nei’s genetic diversity ( He ) was 0.341 for the Rio Grande population and 0.357 for the Rio das Mortes population. These results were not significantly different between populations and suggest a large proportion of heterozygote individuals within both populations. AMOVA showed that 70.42% of the genetic variability is found within populations and 29.58% is found among populations ( Ф S T = 0.2958 ). The analysis of kinship coefficients detected the existence of family structures in both populations. Average kinship coefficients between neighboring individuals were 0.053 ( P < 0.001 ) in Rio das Mortes and 0.040 ( P < 0.001 ) in Rio Grande. This could be due to restricted pollen and seed dispersal and the history of anthropogenic disturbance in the area. These factors are likely to contribute to the relatedness observed among these genotypes.

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          New insights from fine-scale spatial genetic structure analyses in plant populations.

          Many empirical studies have assessed fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS), i.e. the nonrandom spatial distribution of genotypes, within plant populations using genetic markers and spatial autocorrelation techniques. These studies mostly provided qualitative descriptions of SGS, rendering quantitative comparisons among studies difficult. The theory of isolation by distance can predict the pattern of SGS under limited gene dispersal, suggesting new approaches, based on the relationship between pairwise relatedness coefficients and the spatial distance between individuals, to quantify SGS and infer gene dispersal parameters. Here we review the theory underlying such methods and discuss issues about their application to plant populations, such as the choice of the relatedness statistics, the sampling scheme to adopt, the procedure to test SGS, and the interpretation of spatial autocorrelograms. We propose to quantify SGS by an 'Sp' statistic primarily dependent upon the rate of decrease of pairwise kinship coefficients between individuals with the logarithm of the distance in two dimensions. Under certain conditions, this statistic estimates the reciprocal of the neighbourhood size. Reanalysing data from, mostly, published studies, the Sp statistic was assessed for 47 plant species. It was found to be significantly related to the mating system (higher in selfing species) and to the life form (higher in herbs than trees), as well as to the population density (higher under low density). We discuss the necessity for comparing SGS with direct estimates of gene dispersal distances, and show how the approach presented can be extended to assess (i) the level of biparental inbreeding, and (ii) the kurtosis of the gene dispersal distribution.
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            Spatial Genetic Structure of a Tropical Understory Shrub, Psychotria officinalis (Rubiaceae)

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              spagedi a versatile computer program to analyse spatial genetic structure at the individual or population levels

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Forestry Research
                International Journal of Forestry Research
                Hindawi Limited
                1687-9368
                1687-9376
                2014
                2014
                : 2014
                :
                : 1-8
                Article
                10.1155/2014/305286
                © 2014

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