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      A Comparison of Selected Antihypertensives and the Use of Conventional vs Ambulatory Blood Pressure in the Detection and Treatment of Hypertension

      review-article

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Hypertension, Antihypertensive therapy, Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

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          Abstract

          This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of selected antihypertensives (doxazosin, amlodipine, enalapril, and bendrofluazide) in maintaining 24-hour control of blood pressure (BP). The predictive value of ambulatory (A)BP versus clinic (C)BP measurements as a method for detecting patients with hypertension was also evaluated. A total of 204 patients were screened and of these 110 were diagnosed as mild to moderately hypertensive with clinic diastolic BP 100–110 mm Hg (≧95 mm Hg in patients with coronary heart disease risk factors). The 4 antihypertensives were all equally effective at controlling BP over 24 h, as shown by 24-hour ABP measurements. The incidence of adverse events was similar for all 4 treatment groups; headache was the most common event, being reported by 22 patients (20%). There was a clinically relevant reduction in total cholesterol for the doxazosin (–15.4 mg/dl) and amlodipine (–11.6 mg/dl) treatment groups in comparison with enalapril and bendrofluazide. Our results from ABP measurements suggest that the antihypertensives studied are effective first-line therapy in the regulation of hypertension and that ABP is a reproducible measure. ABP may also be useful in identifying patients with various types of high BP, for instance those with ‘white coat’ hypertension, enabling more accurate screening and diagnosis.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Risk of myocardial infarction and death during treatment with low dose aspirin and intravenous heparin in men with unstable coronary artery disease

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            1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension

              (1999)
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              Relationships of quality-of-life measures to long-term lifestyle and drug treatment in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study.

              To compare 5 antihypertensive drugs and placebo for changes in quality of life (QL). To assess the relationship of lifestyle factors and change in lifestyle factors to QL in participants with stage I diastolic hypertension. The Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with minimum participant follow-up of 4 years. It was conducted at 4 hypertension screening and treatment academic centers in the United States. The cohort consisted of 902 men and women with hypertension, aged 45 to 69 years, with diastolic blood pressures less than 100 mm Hg. Informed consent was obtained from each participant after the nature of the procedures had been fully explained. Sustained nutritional-hygienic intervention was administered to all participants to reduce weight, to reduce dietary sodium and alcohol intake, and to increase physical activity. Participants were randomized to take (1) acebutolol (n = 132); (2) amlodipine maleate (n = 131); (3) chlorthalidone (n = 126); (4) doxazosin mesylate (n = 134); (5) enalapril maleate (n = 135); or placebo (n = 234). Changes in 7 QL indexes were assessed based on a 35-item questionnaire: (1) general health; (2) energy or fatigue; (3) mental health; (4) general functioning; (5) satisfaction with physical abilities; (6) social functioning; and (7) social contacts. At baseline, higher QL was associated with older age, more physical activity, lower obesity level, male gender, non-African American race, and higher educational level. Improvements in QL were observed in all randomized groups, including the placebo group during follow-up; greater improvements were observed in the acebutolol and chlorthalidone groups and were evident throughout follow-up. The amount of weight loss, increase in physical activity, and level of attained blood pressure control during follow-up were related to greater improvements in QL. In patients with stage I hypertension, antihypertensive treatment with any of 5 agents used in TOMHS does not impair QL. The diuretic chlorthali-done and the cardioselective beta-blocker acebutolol appear to improve QL the most. Success with lifestyle changes affecting weight loss and increase in physical activity relate to greater improvements in QL and show that these interventions, in addition to contributing to blood pressure control, have positive effects on the general well-being of the individual.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7309-2
                978-3-318-00774-9
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2001
                2001
                08 November 2001
                : 96
                : Suppl 1
                : 3-9
                Affiliations
                Didcot Health Centre, Didcot, UK
                Article
                49095 Cardiology 2001;96(suppl 1):3–9
                10.1159/000049095
                11574740
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 23, Pages: 7
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