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      Low Neurotoxicity of ONX-0914 Supports the Idea of Specific Immunoproteasome Inhibition as a Side-Effect-Limiting, Therapeutic Strategy

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          Application of the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib for the treatment of haematopoietic malignancies such as multiple myeloma significantly improves the average overall survival of patients. However, one of the most severe side effects is the development of peripheral neuropathies caused by neurotoxic effects of Bortezomib limiting its therapeutic efficacy. With ONX-0914 a specific inhibitor of the β5i (LMP7)-immunosubunit containing proteasomes was developed that targets exclusively the proteasome subtypes mainly expressed in immune cells including B lymphocytes as the origin of multiple myeloma. Furthermore, immunosubunitspecific inhibitors have been shown to be promising tools for the therapy of autoimmune disorders. In the presented study, we analysed the concentration-dependent impact of both inhibitors on primary neurons regarding survival rate, morphological changes, and overall viability. Our results clearly demonstrate that ONX-0914, compared to Bortezomib, is less neurotoxic suggesting its potential as a putative antineoplastic drug and as a candidate for the treatment of autoimmune disorders affecting the peripheral and/or central nervous system.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation.

          Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that has crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of NF-kappaB mainly occurs via IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitory molecules, including IkappaBalpha. Optimal induction of NF-kappaB target genes also requires phosphorylation of NF-kappaB proteins, such as p65, within their transactivation domain by a variety of kinases in response to distinct stimuli. Whether, and how, phosphorylation modulates the function of other NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 3, remains unclear. The identification and characterization of all the kinases known to phosphorylate NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins are described here. Because deregulation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB phosphorylations is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer, newly designed drugs targeting these constitutively activated signalling pathways represent promising therapeutic tools.
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            The proteasome inhibitor PS-341 inhibits growth, induces apoptosis, and overcomes drug resistance in human multiple myeloma cells.

            Human multiple myeloma (MM) is a presently incurable hematological malignancy, and novel biologically based therapies are urgently needed. Proteasome inhibitors represent a novel potential anticancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 directly inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human MM cell lines and freshly isolated patient MM cells; inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase growth signaling in MM cells; induces apoptosis despite induction of p21 and p27 in both p53 wild-type and p53 mutant MM cells; overcomes drug resistance; adds to the anti-MM activity of dexamethasone; and overcomes the resistance to apoptosis in MM cells conferred by interleukin-6. PS-341 also inhibits the paracrine growth of human MM cells by decreasing their adherence to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and related nuclear factor kappaB-dependent induction of interleukin-6 secretion in BMSCs, as well as inhibiting proliferation and growth signaling of residual adherent MM cells. These data, therefore, demonstrate that PS-341 both acts directly on MM cells and alters cellular interactions and cytokine secretion in the BM millieu to inhibit tumor cell growth, induce apoptosis, and overcome drug resistance. Given the acceptable animal and human toxicity profile of PS-341, these studies provide the framework for clinical evaluation of PS-341 to improve outcome for patients with this universally fatal hematological malignancy.
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              Periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde fixative. A new fixation for immunoelectron microscopy.


                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                25 September 2017
                September 2017
                : 7
                : 3
                : 234-245
                [1 ] Neural Plasticity and Communication, Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg , Magdeburg, Germany
                [2 ] Friedrich Loeffler Institute for Medical Microbiology , Greifswald, Germany
                [3 ] Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences , Magdeburg, Germany
                Author notes
                * Neural Plasticity and Communication, Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; Daniela.Dieterich@ 123456med.ovgu.de

                + These authors contributed equally.

                © 2017, The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 12
                Original Article


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