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      Prevalence and correlates of physical activity in a sample of UK adults observing social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic


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          To investigate the levels and correlates of physical activity during COVID-19 social distancing in a sample of the UK public.


          This paper presents analyses of data from a cross-sectional study. Levels of physical activity during COVID-19 social distancing were self-reported. Participants also reported on sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between several factors and physical activity was studied using regression models.


          Nine hundred and eleven adults were included (64.0% were women and 50.4% of the participants were aged 35–64 years). 75.0% of the participants met the physical activity guidelines during social distancing. Meeting these guidelines during social distancing was significantly associated with sex (reference: male; female: OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.33), age (reference: 18–34 years; ≥65 years: OR=4.11, 95% CI 2.01 to 8.92), annual household income (reference: <£15 000; £15 000–<£25 000: OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.76; £25 000–<£40 000: OR=3.16, 95% CI 1.68 to 6.04; £40 000–<£60 000: OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.34; ≥£60 000: OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.09), level of physical activity per day when not observing social distancing (OR=1.00 (per 1 min increase), 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01), and any physical symptom experienced during social distancing (reference: no; yes: OR=0.31, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.46).


          During COVID-19, social distancing interventions should focus on increasing physical activity levels among younger adults, men and those with low annual household income. It should be noted in the present sample that women and younger adults are over-represented.

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          Gender differences in leisure-time physical activity

          Summary. Objectives: To explore the association between gender and leisure-time physical activity in a population-based sample of adults living in Brazil. To study a variety of variables possibly associated with physical activity levels. Methods: A multistage sampling of households was undertaken in Pelotas, a medium-sized Southern Brazilian city. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on potential predictors of leisure-time physical activity behavior were collected using a standardized questionnaire. 1 344 men and 1 756 women were interviewed. Several definitions of moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity were used. Results: Regardless of the guideline used, males were more active than women. Socioeconomic level was positively associated with leisure-time physical activity in both genders. A positive dose-response between age and inactivity was found in men, but not among women. Conclusions: Because men and women have different levels of physical activity, and the variables associated with activity levels are not consistent across the genders, interventions promoting physical activity should take these differences into account.
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            Physical activity trajectories and mortality: population based cohort study

            Abstract Objective To assess the prospective associations of baseline and long term trajectories of physical activity on mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Adults from the general population in the UK. Participants 14 599 men and women (aged 40 to 79) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort, assessed at baseline (1993 to 1997) up to 2004 for lifestyle and other risk factors; then followed to 2016 for mortality (median of 12.5 years of follow-up, after the last exposure assessment). Main exposure Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) derived from questionnaires, calibrated against combined movement and heart rate monitoring. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for age, sex, sociodemographics, and changes in medical history, overall diet quality, body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels. Results During 171 277 person years of follow-up, 3148 deaths occurred. Long term increases in PAEE were inversely associated with mortality, independent of baseline PAEE. For each 1 kJ/kg/day per year increase in PAEE (equivalent to a trajectory of being inactive at baseline and gradually, over five years, meeting the World Health Organization minimum physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity physical activity), hazard ratios were: 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.82) for all cause mortality, 0.71 (0.62 to 0.82) for cardiovascular disease mortality, and 0.89 (0.79 to 0.99) for cancer mortality, adjusted for baseline PAEE, and established risk factors. Similar results were observed when analyses were stratified by medical history of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Joint analyses with baseline and trajectories of physical activity show that, compared with consistently inactive individuals, those with increasing physical activity trajectories over time experienced lower risks of mortality from all causes, with hazard ratios of 0.76 (0.65 to 0.88), 0.62 (0.53 to 0.72), and 0.58 (0.43 to 0.78) at low, medium, and high baseline physical activity, respectively. At the population level, meeting and maintaining at least the minimum physical activity recommendations would potentially prevent 46% of deaths associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions Middle aged and older adults, including those with cardiovascular disease and cancer, can gain substantial longevity benefits by becoming more physically active, irrespective of past physical activity levels and established risk factors. Considerable population health impacts can be attained with consistent engagement in physical activity during mid to late life.
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              Life-change events and participation in physical activity: a systematic review.

              Physical inactivity and related diseases are of global public health concern. In many developing countries, levels of health promoting physical activity (PA) are falling despite government initiatives. Previous work has identified that periods of transition across a life course, or 'life-change events' have implications for drop out from PA. As yet, there has been little work to understand the life course as a whole and to furnish a complete list of possible life changes that might affect participation in PA. Our paper presents a review of the published literature in which life events have been studied in relation to their effect on participation in PA. A literature search was conducted for papers published between 1977 and April 2007 and referenced in Pubmed. Papers were reviewed if they; reported the effect of a life-change event; had PA as an outcome; reported results in English; and reported results from observational studies. The references for studies identified during this first phase were searched for further papers. Eighty-seven papers were identified as potentially relevant on the basis of title, of which 19 papers met the inclusion criteria on the basis of full text. Five life changes were identified; change in employment status; change in residence; change in physical status; change in relationships; and change in family structure. It was noted that few longitudinal studies examined PA both before and after a life event. A list of possible life events which might effect participation in PA is presented. This paper represents a first step towards a detailed programme of work on life-change events and PA.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med
                BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med
                BMJ Open Sport — Exercise Medicine
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                1 July 2020
                : 6
                : 1
                [1 ]departmentThe Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences , Anglia Ruskin University , Cambridge, United Kingdom
                [2 ]departmentFaculty of Medicine , University of Versailles Saint‐Quentin‐en‐Yvelines , Montigny‐le- Bretonneux, France
                [3 ]departmentFaculty of Science and Engineering , Anglia Ruskin University , Cambridge, United Kingdom
                [4 ]departmentDepartment of Sports Methods and Techniques , Federal University of Santa Maria , Santa Maria, Brazil
                [5 ]Anglia Ruskin University , Cambridge, UK
                [6 ]departmentDepartment of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre for Public Health , Medical University Vienna , Vienna, Austria
                [7 ]departmentGeriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics , University of Palermo , Palermo, Italy
                [8 ]departmentSchool of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation , University of Technology , Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
                [9 ]departmentFaculty of Sport Science , University of Murcia , Murcia, Spain
                [10 ]departmentDepartment of Kinesiology , Iowa State University , Iowa, Missouri, USA
                [11 ]departmentDepartment of Special Surgery , University of Jordan , Amman, Jordan
                [12 ]departmentNorthern Ireland Public Health Research Network, School of Health Sciences , Ulster University , Ulster, Ireland
                [13 ]departmentHSC R&D Division , Public Health Agency (Northern Ireland) , Belfast, Ireland
                [14 ]departmentInstitute of Mental Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences , Ulster University , Newtownabbey, Ireland
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Lee Smith; lee.smith@ 123456anglia.ac.uk
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                : 23 June 2020
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                physical activity,epidemiology,public health
                physical activity, epidemiology, public health


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