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      Osteocalcin differentially regulates β cell and adipocyte gene expression and affects the development of metabolic diseases in wild-type mice

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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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          Abstract

          The osteoblast-specific secreted molecule osteocalcin behaves as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass in two mutant mouse strains. Here, we ask two questions: is the action of osteocalcin on beta cells and adipocytes elicited by the same concentrations of the molecule, and more importantly, does osteocalcin regulate energy metabolism in WT mice? Cell-based assays using isolated pancreatic islets, a beta cell line, and primary adipocytes showed that picomolar amounts of osteocalcin are sufficient to regulate the expression of the insulin genes and beta cell proliferation markers, whereas nanomolar amounts affect adiponectin and Pgc1alpha expression in white and brown adipocytes, respectively. In vivo the same difference exists in osteocalcin's ability to regulate glucose metabolism on the one hand and affect insulin sensitivity and fat mass on the other hand. Furthermore, we show that long-term treatment of WT mice with osteocalcin can significantly weaken the deleterious effect on body mass and glucose metabolism of gold thioglucose-induced hyperphagia and high-fat diet. These results establish in WT mice the importance of this novel molecular player in the regulation of glucose metabolism and fat mass and suggest that osteocalcin may be of value in the treatment of metabolic diseases.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Complementary action of the PGC-1 coactivators in mitochondrial biogenesis and brown fat differentiation.

          Mitochondria play an essential role in the ability of brown fat to generate heat, and the PGC-1 coactivators control several aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis. To investigate their specific roles in brown fat cells, we generated immortal preadipocyte lines from the brown adipose tissue of mice lacking PGC-1alpha. We could then efficiently knockdown PGC-1beta expression by shRNA expression. Loss of PGC-1alpha did not alter brown fat differentiation but severely reduced the induction of thermogenic genes. Cells deficient in either PGC-1alpha or PGC-1beta coactivators showed a small decrease in the differentiation-dependant program of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration; however, this increase in mitochondrial number and function was totally abolished during brown fat differentiation when both PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta were deficient. These data show that PGC-1alpha is essential for brown fat thermogenesis but not brown fat differentiation, and the PGC-1 coactivators play an absolutely essential but complementary function in differentiation-induced mitochondrial biogenesis.
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            Disruption of adiponectin causes insulin resistance and neointimal formation.

            The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has been proposed to play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and it has been reported to exhibit putative antiatherogenic properties in vitro. In this study we generated adiponectin-deficient mice to directly investigate whether adiponectin has a physiological protective role against diabetes and atherosclerosis in vivo. Heterozygous adiponectin-deficient (adipo(+/-)) mice showed mild insulin resistance, while homozygous adiponectin-deficient (adipo(-/-)) mice showed moderate insulin resistance with glucose intolerance despite body weight gain similar to that of wild-type mice. Moreover, adipo(-/-) mice showed 2-fold more neointimal formation in response to external vascular cuff injury than wild-type mice (p = 0.01). This study provides the first direct evidence that adiponectin plays a protective role against insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in vivo.
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              Loss of Cdk4 expression causes insulin-deficient diabetes and Cdk4 activation results in beta-islet cell hyperplasia.

              To ascertain the role of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) in vivo, we have targeted the mouse Cdk4 locus by homologous recombination to generate two strains of mice, one that lacks Cdk4 expression and one that expresses a Cdk4 molecule with an activating mutation. Embryonic fibroblasts proliferate normally in the absence of Cdk4 but have a delayed S phase on re-entry into the cell cycle. Moreover, mice devoid of Cdk4 are viable, but small in size and infertile. These mice also develop insulin-deficient diabetes due to a reduction in beta-islet pancreatic cells. In contrast, mice expressing a mutant Cdk4 that cannot bind the cell-cycle inhibitor P16INK4a display pancreatic hyperplasia due to abnormal proliferation of beta-islet cells. These results establish Cdk4 as an essential regulator of specific cell types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                PNAS
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                April 01 2008
                April 01 2008
                April 01 2008
                March 24 2008
                : 105
                : 13
                : 5266-5270
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.0711119105
                2278202
                18362359
                f419a45a-1320-4885-88ee-6e8768ae0d8e
                © 2008

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