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      Energy, ecology and the distribution of microbial life.

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          Abstract

          Mechanisms that govern the coexistence of multiple biological species have been studied intensively by ecologists since the turn of the nineteenth century. Microbial ecologists in the meantime have faced many fundamental challenges, such as the lack of an ecologically coherent species definition, lack of adequate methods for evaluating population sizes and community composition in nature, and enormous taxonomic and functional diversity. The accessibility of powerful, culture-independent molecular microbiology methods offers an opportunity to close the gap between microbial science and the main stream of ecological theory, with the promise of new insights and tools needed to meet the grand challenges humans face as planetary engineers and galactic explorers. We focus specifically on resources related to energy metabolism because of their direct links to elemental cycling in the Earth's history, engineering applications and astrobiology. To what extent does the availability of energy resources structure microbial communities in nature? Our recent work on sulfur- and iron-oxidizing autotrophs suggests that apparently subtle variations in the concentration ratios of external electron donors and acceptors select for different microbial populations. We show that quantitative knowledge of microbial energy niches (population-specific patterns of energy resource use) can be used to predict variations in the abundance of specific taxa in microbial communities. Furthermore, we propose that resource ratio theory applied to micro-organisms will provide a useful framework for identifying how environmental communities are organized in space and time.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
          Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
          The Royal Society
          1471-2970
          0962-8436
          Jul 19 2013
          : 368
          : 1622
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. jlm80@psu.edu
          rstb.2012.0383
          10.1098/rstb.2012.0383
          3685468
          23754819

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