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      Dengue Translated title: Dengue

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          Abstract

          El dengue es hoy la más importante arbovirosis, por su gran carga de enfermedad e implicaciones sociales. El mosquito Aedes aegypti, su principal transmisor convive con el hombre en su hábitat domestico y peridoméstico. El cuadro clínico es de fiebre, cefalea, dolor retroocular, dolores corporales, exantema y mucho decaimiento. El enfermo puede empeorar súbitamente y presentar choque por dengue, con grandes hemorragias digestivas y elevada mortalidad. No existe droga antiviral, pero la muerte puede evitarse mediante la infusión intravenosa precoz de soluciones cristaloides. Algunos candidatos vacunales están actualmente en ensayo clínico. La prevención depende del control del vector, mediante educación sanitaria y reordenamiento ambiental.

          Translated abstract

          Dengue is the most important arbovirosis in the World, with a huge burden of disease and social implications. It is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, that lives in the domestic and peridomestic habitat. The clinical picture includes fever, headache, retroorbital pain, body pains, rash and malaise. Sometimes patients has a sudden worsening with hypovolemic shock and hemorrhages, high an elevated lethality. Not an antiviral drug is available, but death can be prevented by early intravenous infusion of crystalloid solutions. Some vaccine candidates are being now evaluated. Prevention depends on vector control by health education and environmental reordering.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

          Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to develop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever.
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            Dengue y dengue hemorrágico en las Américas: guías para su prevención y control

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              Comparison of three fluid solutions for resuscitation in dengue shock syndrome.

              Dengue shock syndrome is characterized by severe vascular leakage and disordered hemostasis and progresses to death in 1 to 5 percent of cases. Although volume replacement is recognized as the critical therapeutic intervention, World Health Organization management guidelines remain empirical rather than evidence-based. We performed a double-blind, randomized comparison of three fluids for initial resuscitation of Vietnamese children with dengue shock syndrome. We randomly assigned 383 children with moderately severe shock to receive Ringer's lactate, 6 percent dextran 70 (a colloid), or 6 percent hydroxyethyl starch (a colloid) and 129 children with severe shock to receive one of the colloids. The primary outcome measure was requirement for rescue colloid at any time after administration of the study fluid. Only one patient died (<0.2 percent mortality). The primary outcome measure--requirement for rescue colloid--was similar for the different fluids in the two severity groups. The relative risk of requirement for rescue colloid was 1.08 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.47; P=0.65) among children with moderate shock who received Ringer's lactate as compared with either of the colloid solutions, 1.13 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.74; P=0.59) among children who received dextran as compared with starch in the group with severe shock, and 0.88 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.66 to 1.17; P=0.38) among children who received dextran as compared with starch in the combined analysis. Although treatment with Ringer's lactate resulted in less rapid improvement in the hematocrit and a marginally longer time to initial recovery than did treatment with either of the colloid solutions, there were no differences in all other measures of treatment response. Only minor differences in efficacy were detected between the two colloids, but significantly more recipients of dextran than of starch had adverse reactions. Bleeding manifestations, coagulation derangements, and severity of fluid overload were similar for all fluid-treatment groups. Initial resuscitation with Ringer's lactate is indicated for children with moderately severe dengue shock syndrome. Dextran 70 and 6 percent hydroxyethyl starch perform similarly in children with severe shock, but given the adverse reactions associated with the use of dextran, starch may be preferable for this group. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ea
                Estudos Avançados
                Estud. av.
                Instituto de Estudos Avançados da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo )
                1806-9592
                December 2008
                : 22
                : 64
                : 33-52
                S0103-40142008000300004
                10.1590/S0103-40142008000300004

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                CULTURAL STUDIES
                SOCIAL SCIENCES, INTERDISCIPLINARY

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