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      Inhibitory Effects of Aschantin on Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes

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          Abstract

          Aschantin is a bioactive neolignan found in Magnolia flos with antiplasmodial, Ca 2+-antagonistic, platelet activating factor-antagonistic, and chemopreventive activities. We investigated its inhibitory effects on the activities of eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes of human liver microsomes to determine if mechanistic aschantin–enzyme interactions were evident. Aschantin potently inhibited CYP2C8-mediated amodiaquine N-de-ethylation, CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4′-hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated [ S]-mephenytoin 4′-hydroxylation, and CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1′-hydroxylation, with K i values of 10.2, 3.7, 5.8, and 12.6 µM, respectively. Aschantin at 100 µM negligibly inhibited CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-de-ethylation, CYP2A6-mediated coumarin 7-hydroxylation, CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylation, and CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation. At 200 µM, it weakly inhibited UGT1A1-catalyzed SN-38 glucuronidation, UGT1A6-catalyzed N-acetylserotonin glucuronidation, and UGT1A9-catalyzed mycophenolic acid glucuronidation, with IC 50 values of 131.7, 144.1, and 71.0 µM, respectively, but did not show inhibition against UGT1A3, UGT1A4, or UGT2B7 up to 200 µM. These in vitro results indicate that aschantin should be examined in terms of potential interactions with pharmacokinetic drugs in vivo. It exhibited potent mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4.

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          Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein

          The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems.
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            Hepato-protective effects of six schisandra lignans on acetaminophen-induced liver injury are partially associated with the inhibition of CYP-mediated bioactivation.

            Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute liver failure. Schisandra fructus is widely-used traditional Chinese medicine which possesses hepato-protective potential. Schisandrin A (SinA), Schisandrin B (SinB), Schisandrin C (SinC), Schisandrol A (SolA), Schisandrol B (SolB), and Schisantherin A (SthA) are the major bioactive lignans. Most recently, we found SolB exerts significant hepato-protection against APAP-induced liver injury. In this study, the protective effects of the other five schisandra lignans against APAP-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice were investigated and compared with that of SolB. The results of morphological and biochemical assessment clearly demonstrated significant protective effects of SinA, SinB, SinC, SolA, SolB, and SthA against APAP-induced liver injury. Among these schisandra lignans, SinC and SolB exerted the strongest hepato-protective effects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Six lignans pretreatment before APAP dosing could prevent the depletions of total liver glutathione (GSH) and mitochondrial GSH caused by APAP. Additionally, the lignans treatment inhibited the enzymatic activities of three CYP450 isoforms (CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A11) related to APAP bioactivation, and further decreased the formation of APAP toxic intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) in mouse microsomal incubation system. This study demonstrated that SinA, SinB, SinC, SolA, SolB and SthA exhibited significant protective actions toward APAP-induced liver injury, which was partially associated with the inhibition of CYP-mediated APAP bioactivation.
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              Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development.

              Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is one of the most abundant CYP enzymes in the human liver. CYP2C9 metabolizes more than 100 therapeutic drugs, including tolbutamide, glyburide, diclofenac, celecoxib, torasemide, phenytoin losartan, and S-warfarin). Some natural and herbal compounds are also metabolized by CYP2C9, probably leading to the formation of toxic metabolites. CYP2C9 also plays a role in the metabolism of several endogenous compounds such as steroids, melatonin, retinoids and arachidonic acid. Many CYP2C9 substrates are weak acids, but CYP2C9 also has the capacity to metabolise neutral, highly lipophilic compounds. A number of ligand-based and homology models of CYP2C9 have been reported and this has provided insights into the binding of ligands to the active site of CYP2C9. Data from the site-directed mutagenesis studies have revealed that a number of residues (e.g. Arg97, Phe110, Val113, Phe114, Arg144, Ser286, Asn289, Asp293 and Phe476) play an important role in ligand binding and determination of substrate specificity. The resolved crystal structures of CYP2C9 have confirmed the importance of these residues in substrate recognition and ligand orientation. CYP2C9 is activated by dapsone and its analogues and R-lansoprazole in a stereo-specific and substrate-dependent manner, probably through binding to the active site and inducing positive cooperativity. CYP2C9 is subject to induction by rifampin, phenobarbital, and dexamethasone, indicating the involvement of pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and glucocorticoid receptor in the regulation of CYP2C9. A number of compounds have been found to inhibit CYP2C9 and this may provide an explanation for some clinically important drug interactions. Tienilic acid, suprofen and silybin are mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP2C9. Given the critical role of CYP2C9 in drug metabolism and the presence of polymorphisms, it is important to identify drug candidates as potential substrates, inducer or inhibitors of CYP2C9 in drug development and drug discovery scientists should develop drugs with minimal interactions with this enzyme. Further studies are warranted to explore the molecular determinants for ligand-CYP2C9 binding and the structure-activity relationships.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                27 April 2016
                May 2016
                : 21
                : 5
                : 554
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Drug Metabolism and Bioanalysis Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea; zuzutnseo@ 123456naver.com (S.-S.K.); jhyunkim@ 123456catholic.ac.kr (J.-H.K.); wjd1375@ 123456hanmail.net (H.-U.J.); yongyeon@ 123456catholic.ac.kr (Y.-Y.C.)
                [2 ]Natural Medicine Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Biology and Biotechnology, Chungbuk 363-883, Korea; seiryang@ 123456kribb.re.kr
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: sianalee@ 123456catholic.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-2164-4061; Fax: +82-32-342-2013
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                molecules-21-00554
                10.3390/molecules21050554
                6273138
                27128896
                f425f196-47af-444a-9ce4-ddae7795c6dc
                © 2016 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 05 April 2016
                : 23 April 2016
                Categories
                Article

                aschantin,human liver microsomes,time-dependent cytochrome p450 inhibition,udp-glucuronosyltransferase,drug interaction

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