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      Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries: Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives

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          Ionic-liquid materials for the electrochemical challenges of the future.

          Ionic liquids are room-temperature molten salts, composed mostly of organic ions that may undergo almost unlimited structural variations. This review covers the newest aspects of ionic liquids in applications where their ion conductivity is exploited; as electrochemical solvents for metal/semiconductor electrodeposition, and as batteries and fuel cells where conventional media, organic solvents (in batteries) or water (in polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells), fail. Biology and biomimetic processes in ionic liquids are also discussed. In these decidedly different materials, some enzymes show activity that is not exhibited in more traditional systems, creating huge potential for bioinspired catalysis and biofuel cells. Our goal in this review is to survey the recent key developments and issues within ionic-liquid research in these areas. As well as informing materials scientists, we hope to generate interest in the wider community and encourage others to make use of ionic liquids in tackling scientific challenges.
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            Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

            Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.
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              Metal-Air Batteries with High Energy Density: Li-Air versus Zn-Air

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Materials
                Adv. Mater.
                Wiley
                09359648
                February 2017
                February 2017
                November 28 2016
                : 29
                : 7
                : 1604685
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemical Engineering; Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology; Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Energy; University of Waterloo; 200 University Avenue West Waterloo ON N2L 3G1 Canada
                Article
                10.1002/adma.201604685
                f42f7b12-abdb-4046-ba5a-2b5095b5c8c6
                © 2016

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions

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