This study was performed to assess oral and nutritional status of nursing home residents in a region of Lower Saxony, Germany. The aim was to show potential associations between oral status (dentate or edentulous), further anamnestic factors (dementia, age, smoking) and the risk for malnutrition in this population.
In this observational cross-sectional pilot study of residents from four nursing homes Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Body-Mass-Index (BMI), dental status (DMF-T) and periodontal situation (PSR ®/PSI) were recorded. Associations of recorded factors with oral health and nutritional status were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis.
Eighty-seven residents participated in the study (mean age: 84.1 years; female: 72%, demented: 47%). Average BMI was 26.2 kg/m 2; according MNA 52% were at risk for malnutrition. 48% of the residents were edentulous, and the average DMF-T of dentulous was 25.0 (3.7) (D-T: 2.0 [3.1], M-T: 15.0 [8.3], F-T: 8.0 [7.4]); PSR ®/PSI 3 and 4 (need for periodontal treatment) showed 79% of residents. In univariate analysis dementia (OR 2.5 CI 95 1.1–5.6) but not being edentulous (OR 2.0 CI 95 0.8–5.8) were associated with being at risk for malnutrition. Dementia remained associated in multivariate analysis adjusting for age and sex, (OR 3.1 CI 95 1.2–8.2) and additionally being edentulous (OR 2.8 CI 95 1.1–7.3) became associated significantly. Furthermore, nursing home residents with dementia had more remaining teeth (OR 2.5 CI 95 1.1–5.9).