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      Diabetic cardiomyopathy: factual or factoid?

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          Abstract

          SUMMARY Although long ago described, there is no established consensus regarding the real existence of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy (CMPDM). Due to its complex pathophysiology, it has been difficult for clinical and experimental research to establish clear connections between diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF), as well as to solve the mechanisms of the underlying myocardial disease. However, the epidemiological evidence of the relationship of these conditions is undisputed. The interest in understanding this disease has intensified due to the recent results of clinical trials evaluating new glucose-lowering drugs, such as sodium-glucose transporter inhibitors 2, which demonstrated favorable responses considering the prevention and treatment of HF in patients with DM. In this review we cover aspects of the epidemiology of CMPDM and its possible pathogenic mechanisms, as well as, present the main cardiac phenotypes of CMPDM (HF with preserved and reduced ejection fraction) and implications of the therapeutic management of this disease.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO Apesar de há muito tempo descrita, não existe consenso estabelecido quanto à real existência da cardiomiopatia diabética (CMPDM). Devido à sua complexa fisiopatologia, tem sido árduo à pesquisa clínica e experimental estabelecer conexões claras entre diabetes mellitus (DM) e insuficiência cardíaca (IC), assim como solucionar os mecanismos da doença subjacente do miocárdio. No entanto, as evidências epidemiológicas da relação dessas condições são incontestáveis. O interesse em compreender melhor essa doença tem recrudescido devido aos recentes resultados de ensaios clínicos avaliando novos fármacos hipoglicemiantes, como os inibidores do transportador de sódio-glicose 2, que demonstraram respostas favoráveis, considerando-se a prevenção e tratamento da IC em pacientes portadores de DM. Nesta revisão, percorremos aspectos da epidemiologia da CMPDM e de seus possíveis mecanismos patogênicos, além de apresentarmos os principais fenótipos cardíacos da CMPDM (IC com fração de ejeção preservada e reduzida) e implicações do manejo terapêutico desta doença.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes.

          The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known.
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            Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study.

            To determine the relation between exposure to glycaemia over time and the risk of macrovascular or microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Prospective observational study. 23 hospital based clinics in England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. 4585 white, Asian Indian, and Afro-Caribbean UKPDS patients, whether randomised or not to treatment, were included in analyses of incidence; of these, 3642 were included in analyses of relative risk. Primary predefined aggregate clinical outcomes: any end point or deaths related to diabetes and all cause mortality. Secondary aggregate outcomes: myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation (including death from peripheral vascular disease), and microvascular disease (predominantly retinal photo-coagulation). Single end points: non-fatal heart failure and cataract extraction. Risk reduction associated with a 1% reduction in updated mean HbA(1c) adjusted for possible confounders at diagnosis of diabetes. The incidence of clinical complications was significantly associated with glycaemia. Each 1% reduction in updated mean HbA(1c) was associated with reductions in risk of 21% for any end point related to diabetes (95% confidence interval 17% to 24%, P<0.0001), 21% for deaths related to diabetes (15% to 27%, P<0.0001), 14% for myocardial infarction (8% to 21%, P<0.0001), and 37% for microvascular complications (33% to 41%, P<0.0001). No threshold of risk was observed for any end point. In patients with type 2 diabetes the risk of diabetic complications was strongly associated with previous hyperglycaemia. Any reduction in HbA(1c) is likely to reduce the risk of complications, with the lowest risk being in those with HbA(1c) values in the normal range (<6.0%).
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              Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes

              Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Results The mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.02 for superiority). Although on the basis of the prespecified hypothesis testing sequence the renal outcomes are not viewed as statistically significant, the results showed a possible benefit of canagliflozin with respect to the progression of albuminuria (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.79) and the composite outcome of a sustained 40% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the need for renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal causes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.77). Adverse reactions were consistent with the previously reported risks associated with canagliflozin except for an increased risk of amputation (6.3 vs. 3.4 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.75); amputations were primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. Conclusions In two trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, patients treated with canagliflozin had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those who received placebo but a greater risk of amputation, primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CANVAS and CANVAS-R ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01032629 and NCT01989754 , respectively.).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ramb
                Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
                Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras.
                Associação Médica Brasileira (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0104-4230
                1806-9282
                January 2019
                : 65
                : 1
                : 61-69
                Affiliations
                Campinas São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Campinas orgdiv1Faculty of Medical Sciences orgdiv2Subject of Cardiology Brazil
                Article
                S0104-42302019000100061
                10.1590/1806-9282.65.1.69

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 70, Pages: 9
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                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
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