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      Progressive Renal Decline: The New Paradigm of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          On the basis of extensive studies in Joslin Clinic patients over 25 years, we propose a new model of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. In this model, the predominant clinical feature of both early and late stages of diabetic nephropathy is progressive renal decline, not albuminuria. Progressive renal decline (estimated glomerular filtration rate loss >3.5 mL/min/year) is a unidirectional process that develops while patients have normal renal function. It progresses at an almost steady rate until end-stage renal disease is reached, albeit at widely differing rates among individuals. Progressive renal decline precedes the onset of microalbuminuria, and as it continues, it increases the risk of proteinuria. Therefore, study groups ascertained for microalbuminuria/proteinuria are enriched for patients with renal decline (decliners). We found prevalences of decliners in 10%, 32%, and 50% of patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and proteinuria, respectively. Whether the initial lesion of progressive renal decline is in the glomerulus, tubule, interstitium, or vasculature is unknown. Similarly unclear are the initiating mechanism and the driver of progression. No animal model mimics progressive renal decline, so etiological studies must be conducted in humans with diabetes. Prospective studies searching for biomarkers predictive of the onset and rate of progression of renal decline have already yielded positive findings that will help to develop not only accurate methods for early diagnosis but also new therapeutic approaches. Detecting in advance which patients will have rapid, moderate, or minimal rates of progression to end-stage renal disease will be the foundation for developing personalized methods of prevention and treatment of progressive renal decline in type 1 diabetes.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Use of allopurinol in slowing the progression of renal disease through its ability to lower serum uric acid level.

          Hyperuricemia is associated strongly with the development of hypertension, renal disease, and progression. Allopurinol decreases serum uric acid levels by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase. We hypothesized that administrating allopurinol to decrease serum uric acid levels to the normal range in hyperuricemic patients with chronic kidney disease may be of benefit in decreasing blood pressure and slowing the rate of renal disease progression in these patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of 54 hyperuricemic patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with allopurinol, 100 to 300 mg/d, or to continue the usual therapy for 12 months. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. We define our study end points as: (1) stable kidney function with less than 40% increase in serum creatinine level, (2) impaired renal function with creatinine level increase greater than 40% of baseline value, (3) initiation of dialysis therapy, and (4) death. One patient in the treatment group dropped out because of skin allergy to allopurinol. Serum uric acid levels were significantly decreased in subjects treated with allopurinol, from 9.75 +/- 1.18 mg/dL (0.58 +/- 0.07 mmol/L) to 5.88 +/- 1.01 mg/dL (0.35 +/- 0.06 mmol/L; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure at the end of the study comparing the 2 groups. There was a trend toward a lower serum creatinine level in the treatment group compared with controls after 12 months of therapy, although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.08). Overall, 4 of 25 patients (16%) in the allopurinol group reached the combined end points of significant deterioration in renal function and dialysis dependence compared with 12 of 26 patients (46.1%) in the control group (P = 0.015). Allopurinol therapy significantly decreases serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. Its use is safe and helps preserve kidney function during 12 months of therapy compared with controls. Results of this study need to be confirmed with an additional prospective trial involving a larger cohort of patients to determine the long-term efficacy of allopurinol therapy and in specific chronic kidney disease subpopulations.
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            Intensive diabetes therapy and glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetes.

            An impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) leads to end-stage renal disease and increases the risks of cardiovascular disease and death. Persons with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for kidney disease, but there are no interventions that have been proved to prevent impairment of the GFR in this population. In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), 1441 persons with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned to 6.5 years of intensive diabetes therapy aimed at achieving near-normal glucose concentrations or to conventional diabetes therapy aimed at preventing hyperglycemic symptoms. Subsequently, 1375 participants were followed in the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. Serum creatinine levels were measured annually throughout the course of the two studies. The GFR was estimated with the use of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. We analyzed data from the two studies to determine the long-term effects of intensive diabetes therapy on the risk of impairment of the GFR, which was defined as an incident estimated GFR of less than 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area at two consecutive study visits. Over a median follow-up period of 22 years in the combined studies, impairment of the GFR developed in 24 participants assigned to intensive therapy and in 46 assigned to conventional therapy (risk reduction with intensive therapy, 50%; 95% confidence interval, 18 to 69; P=0.006). Among these participants, end-stage renal disease developed in 8 participants in the intensive-therapy group and in 16 in the conventional-therapy group. As compared with conventional therapy, intensive therapy was associated with a reduction in the mean estimated GFR of 1.7 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) during the DCCT study but during the EDIC study was associated with a slower rate of reduction in the GFR and an increase in the mean estimated GFR of 2.5 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The beneficial effect of intensive therapy on the risk of an impaired GFR was fully attenuated after adjustment for glycated hemoglobin levels or albumin excretion rates. The long-term risk of an impaired GFR was significantly lower among persons treated early in the course of type 1 diabetes with intensive diabetes therapy than among those treated with conventional diabetes therapy. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; DCCT/EDIC ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00360815 and NCT00360893.).
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              Mouse models of diabetic nephropathy.

              Mice provide an experimental model of unparalleled flexibility for studying mammalian diseases. Inbred strains of mice exhibit substantial differences in their susceptibility to the renal complications of diabetes. Much remains to be established regarding the course of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in mice as well as defining those strains and/or mutants that are most susceptible to renal injury from diabetes. Through the use of the unique genetic reagents available in mice (including knockouts and transgenics), the validation of a mouse model reproducing human DN should significantly facilitate the understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that contribute to the development of DN. Establishment of an authentic mouse model of DN will undoubtedly facilitate testing of translational diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in mice before testing in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                June 2015
                12 May 2015
                : 38
                : 6
                : 954-962
                Affiliations
                Research Division of Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Andrzej S. Krolewski, andrzej.krolewski@ 123456joslin.harvard.edu .
                Article
                0184
                10.2337/dc15-0184
                4439536
                25998286
                © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: NIH Clinical Center http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000098
                Award ID: DK-41526
                Funded by: Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000901
                Award ID: 1-2008-1018
                Award ID: 17-2013-8
                Categories
                Kelly West Award Lecture

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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