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      Integrative descriptions of two new species of Dugesia from Hainan Island, China (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)

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          Abstract

          Two new species of the genus Dugesia ( Platyhelminthes , Tricladida , Dugesiidae ) from Hainan Island of China are described on the basis of morphological, karyological and molecular data. Dugesia semiglobosa Chen & Dong, sp. nov. is mainly characterized by a hemispherical, asymmetrical penis papilla with ventrally displaced ejaculatory duct opening terminally at tip of penis papilla; vasa deferentia separately opening into mid-dorsal portion of intrabulbar seminal vesicle; two diaphragms in the ejaculatory duct; copulatory bursa formed by expansion of bursal canal, lined with complex stratified epithelium, which projects through opening in bursa towards intestine, without having open communication with the gut; mixoploid chromosome complement diploid (2n = 16) and triploid (3n = 24), with metacentric chromosomes. Dugesia majuscula Chen & Dong, sp. nov. is mainly characterized by oviducts opening asymmetrically into female reproductive system; hyperplasic ovaries; expanded posterior section of bursal canal; vasa deferentia separately opening into mid-dorsal portion of seminal vesicle; asymmetrical penis papilla due to ventral course of ejaculatory duct, which has subterminal and dorsal opening at tip papilla; mixoploid chromosome complement diploid (2n = 16) and triploid (3n = 24); chromosomes metacentric. Apart from their anatomy, separate species status of the two new species is supported also by their genetic distances and by their positions in the phylogenetic tree. The sexualization process may have been induced by the lower temperatures, in comparison with their natural habitat, under which the worms were cultured in the laboratory.

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

            Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

              We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                05 April 2021
                : 1028
                : 1-28
                Affiliations
                [1 ] College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 Henan, China Henan Normal University Xinxiang China
                [2 ] Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, the Netherlands Xinxiang University Xinxiang China
                [3 ] Medical College, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003, China Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden Netherlands
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Guang-wen Chen ( chengw0183@ 123456sina.com )

                Academic editor: Y. Mutafchiev

                Article
                60838
                10.3897/zookeys.1028.60838
                8041735
                Lei Wang, Zi-mei Dong, Guang-wen Chen, Ronald Sluys, De-zeng Liu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Dugesiidae
                Tricladida
                Turbellaria
                Systematics
                Asia

                Animal science & Zoology

                molecular phylogeny, taxonomy, molecular distance, histology, karyology

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