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      Isolated Type 2 Diabetes mellitus Causes Myocardial Dysfunction That Becomes Worse in the Presence of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results of the Myocardial Doppler in Diabetes (MYDID) Study 1

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          Abstract

          Aims: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) often suffer disproportionately and have a worse outcome when burdened with cardiovascular complications compared with those without DM. A specific heart muscle disease reportedly caused by DM per se may explain this. We sought to investigate whether an echo Doppler diagnosis of such a myocardial disease is clinically relevant in DM with or without coexistent coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or hypertension (HTN). Subjects and Methods: Two hundred subjects (127 males, 73 females, 56 ± 10 years) including controls (n = 23), patients with HTN (n = 20), CAD (n = 35), uncomplicated DM (n = 59), DM+HTN (n = 27), DM+CAD (n = 16) and DM+CAD+HTN (n = 20) underwent tissue Doppler-enhanced dobutamine stress echocardiography. Myocardial function was assessed by measuring left ventricular myocardial peak systolic velocity (PSV) and early diastolic velocity at rest and during peak stress, besides measurements of standard Doppler variables. Results: Average left ventricular PSV at rest was significantly lower in CAD (4.7 ± 1.5) compared with controls (5.7 ± 1.2) and in DM+CAD+HTN (4.6 ± 1.4) compared with DM (5.6 ± 1.3; all p < 0.05). During peak stress, lower PSV persisted in CAD (9.5 ± 3.1) and DM+CAD+HTN (8.1 ± 2.7), while appearing de novo in DM (11.3 ± 2.6) and HTN (11.0 ± 2.3) unlike in the controls (12.5 ± 2.5; all p < 0.001). When pooled together, DM subjects with CAD and/or HTN or both had significantly lower PSV (9.1 ± 2.7) than those without (10.0 ± 2.8; p < 0.001). Early diastolic velocity response was equally lower in both groups compared with the controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that dobutamine stress unmasks myocardial functional disturbances caused by uncomplicated DM. The discrete disturbances become quantitatively more pronounced in the presence of coexistent cardiovascular diseases.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

          Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the Steno-2 Study, we compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention with that of conventional treatment on modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The primary end point of this open, parallel trial was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, revascularization, and amputation. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment in accordance with national guidelines and 80 to receive intensive treatment, with a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacologic therapy that targeted hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria, along with secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with aspirin. The mean age of the patients was 55.1 years, and the mean follow-up was 7.8 years. The decline in glycosylated hemoglobin values, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels measured after an overnight fast, and urinary albumin excretion rate were all significantly greater in the intensive-therapy group than in the conventional-therapy group. Patients receiving intensive therapy also had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.73), nephropathy (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.87), retinopathy (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.86), and autonomic neuropathy (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.79). A target-driven, long-term, intensified intervention aimed at multiple risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria reduces the risk of cardiovascular and microvascular events by about 50 percent. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            The impact of diabetes on left ventricular filling pattern in normotensive and hypertensive adults: the Strong Heart Study.

            We sought to determine the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on left ventricular (LV) filling pattern in normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HTN) individuals. Diastolic abnormalities have been extensively described in HTN but are less well characterized in DM, which frequently coexists with HTN. We analyzed the transmitral inflow velocity profile at the mitral annulus in four groups from the Strong Heart Study: NT-non-DM (n = 730), HTN-non-DM (n = 394), NT-DM (n = 616) and HTN-DM (n = 671). The DM subjects were further divided into those with normal filling pattern (n = 107) and those with abnormal relaxation (AbnREL) (n = 447). The peak E velocity was lowest in HTN-DM, intermediate in NT-DM and HT-non-DM and highest in the NT-non-DM group (p < 0.001), with a reverse trend seen for peak A velocity (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, E/A ratio was lowest in HTN-DM and highest in NT-non-DM, with no difference between NT-DM and HTN-non DM (p < 0.001). Likewise, mean atrial filling fraction and deceleration time were highest in HTN-DM, followed by HTN-non-DM or NT-DM and lowest in NT-non-DM (both p < 0.05). Among DM subjects, those with AbnREL had higher fasting glucose (p = 0.03) and hemoglobin A1C (p = 0.04). Diabetes mellitus, especially with worse glycemic control, is independently associated with abnormal LV relaxation. The severity of abnormal LV relaxation is similar to the well-known impaired relaxation associated with HTN. The combination of DM and HTN has more severe abnormal LV relaxation than groups with either condition alone. In addition, AbnREL in DM is associated with worse glycemic control.
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              Prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with heart failure according to the etiology of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

              We sought to determine the relative impact of diabetes mellitus on prognosis in ischemic compared with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Ischemic myocardium is characterized by increased reliance on aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. Because glucose utilization by cardiomyocytes is an insulin-mediated process, we hypothesized that diabetes would have a more adverse impact on mortality and progression of heart failure in ischemic compared with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Prevention and Treatment trials. In adjusted analyses, diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, (relative risk [RR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 1.55; p < 0.0001), but not in those with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.32; p = 0.98). The increased mortality in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared with nonischemic cardiomyopathy was limited to those with ischemic cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.56; p < 0.0001). When patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus were excluded, there was no significant difference in mortality risk between the ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy groups after adjusted analysis (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.15; p = 0.99). Previous surgical revascularization identified patients within the cohort with ischemic cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus, with improved prognosis. The differential impact of diabetes on mortality and heart failure progression according to the etiology of heart failure suggests that diabetes and ischemic heart disease interact to accelerate the progression of myocardial dysfunction. Evaluation of the potential for revascularization may be particularly important in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                June 2005
                10 June 2005
                : 103
                : 4
                : 189-195
                Affiliations
                aBMJ Heart Center, Bangalore, India; Departments of bClinical Physiology and cCardiology, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
                Article
                85126 Cardiology 2005;103:189–195
                10.1159/000085126
                15832025
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 7
                Categories
                General Cardiology

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