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      Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview

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          Abstract

          Various modalities of treatment are available for different dental diseases, but the major drawback of these conventional drug therapies is the numerous side effects associated with their use. This has led to renewed interest in the discovery of novel anti-infective natural compounds derived from plants. Plants have been the major source of medicine since the time immemorial. Turmeric has been attributed a number of medicinal properties in the traditional system of medicine. The objective of this article is to review the efficacy of turmeric herb in maintenance of oral health, in particular, and overall health, in general. Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a herb known for its medicinal properties and is a more acceptable and viable option for a common man. It has proven properties like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant, antiseptic, and antimutagenic. Due to these properties, it is quite useful in dentistry as well. It has a role in the treatment of periodontal diseases and oral cancers. Turmeric can also be used as a pit and fissure sealant, mouth wash, and subgingival irrigant in different preparations. It can also be used as a component in local drug delivery system in gel form.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Curcumin: A review of anti-cancer properties and therapeutic activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

          Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, as it is nontoxic and has a variety of therapeutic properties including anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer activities via its effect on a variety of biological pathways involved in mutagenesis, oncogene expression, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Curcumin has shown anti-proliferative effect in multiple cancers, and is an inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB and downstream gene products (including c-myc, Bcl-2, COX-2, NOS, Cyclin D1, TNF-α, interleukins and MMP-9). In addition, curcumin affects a variety of growth factor receptors and cell adhesion molecules involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and treatment protocols include disfiguring surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy and radiation, all of which may result in tremendous patient morbidity. As a result, there is significant interest in developing adjuvant chemotherapies to augment currently available treatment protocols, which may allow decreased side effects and toxicity without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Curcumin is one such potential candidate, and this review presents an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo data supporting its therapeutic activity in head and neck cancer as well as some of the challenges concerning its development as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent.
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            Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, induces heme oxygenase-1 and protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

            Curcumin, a widely used spice and coloring agent in food, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, antitumor promoting and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism(s) of such pleiotropic action by this yellow pigment is unknown; whether induction of distinct antioxidant genes contributes to the beneficial activities mediated by curcumin remains to be investigated. In the present study we examined the effect of curcumin on endothelial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 or HSP32), an inducible stress protein that degrades heme to the vasoactive molecule carbon monoxide and the antioxidant biliverdin. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells to curcumin (5-15 microM) resulted in both a concentration- and time-dependent increase in HO-1 mRNA, protein expression and heme oxygenase activity. Hypoxia (18 h) also caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in heme oxygenase activity which was markedly potentiated by the presence of low concentrations of curcumin (5 microM). Interestingly, prolonged incubation (18 h) with curcumin in normoxic or hypoxic conditions resulted in enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative damage; this cytoprotective effect was considerably attenuated by tin protoporphyrin IX, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase activity. In contrast, exposure of cells to curcumin for a period of time insufficient to up-regulate HO-1 (1.5 h) did not prevent oxidant-mediated injury. These data indicate that curcumin is a potent inducer of HO-1 in vascular endothelial cells and that increased heme oxygenase activity is an important component in curcumin-mediated cytoprotection against oxidative stress.
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              A study on the fate of curcumin in the rat.

              The uptake, distribution and excretion of curcumin in Sprague-Dawley rats has been studied. When administered orally in a dose of 1 g/kg, curcumin was excreted in the faeces to about 75%, while negligible amounts of curcumin appeared in the urine. Measurements of blood plasma levels and biliary excretion showed that curcumin was poorly absorbed from the gut. No apparent toxic effects were seen after doses of up to 5 g/kg. When intravenously injected or when added to the perfusate of the isolated liver, curcumin was actively transported into bile, against concentration gradients of several hundred times. The major part of the drug was however metabolized. In suspensions of isolated hepatocytes or liver microsomes 90% of the added curcumin was metabolized within 30 min. In view of the poor absorption, rapid metabolism and excretion of curcumin, it is unlikely that substantial concentrations of curcumin occur in the body after ingestion.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Nat Sci Biol Med
                J Nat Sci Biol Med
                JNSBM
                Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0976-9668
                2229-7707
                Jan-Jun 2013
                : 4
                : 1
                : 3-7
                Affiliations
                Department of Oral Pathology, Dr. H.S. Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India
                [1 ] Department of Periodontology, Dr. H.S. Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Shaveta Sood, Department of Periodontology, Dr. H.S. Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India. E-mail: drshavetasood@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                JNSBM-4-3
                10.4103/0976-9668.107253
                3633300
                23633828
                Copyright: © Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Life sciences

                antimicrobial, turmeric, oral health, mouthwash, medicine

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