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      Curcumin modulates the effect of histone modification on the expression of chemokines by type II alveolar epithelial cells in a rat COPD model

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          Abstract

          Background

          Studies have suggested that histone modification has a positive impact on various aspects associated with the progression of COPD. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) suppresses proinflammatory gene expression through deacetylation of core histones.

          Objective

          To investigate the effect of histone modification on the expression of chemokines in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II) in a rat COPD model and regulation of HDAC2 expression by curcumin in comparison with corticosteroid.

          Materials and methods

          The rat COPD model was established by cigarette smoke exposure and confirmed by histology and pathophysioloy. AEC II were isolated and cultured in vitro from the COPD models and control animals. The cells were treated with curcumin, corticosteroid, or trichostatin A, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2α (MIP-2α) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of HDAC2 was measured by Western blot. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to detect H3/H4 acetylation and H3K9 methylation in the promoter region of three kinds of chemokine genes (IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-2α).

          Results

          Compared to the control group, the mRNAs of MCP-1, IL-8, and MIP-2α were upregulated 4.48-fold, 3.14-fold, and 2.83-fold, respectively, in the AEC II from COPD model. The protein expression of HDAC2 in the AEC II from COPD model was significantly lower than from the control group ( P<0.05). The decreased expression of HDAC2 was negatively correlated with the increased expression of IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-2α mRNAs (all P<0.05). The level of H3/H4 acetylation was higher but H3K9 methylation in the promoter region of chemokine genes was lower in the cells from COPD model than from the control group (all P<0.05). Curcumin downregulated the expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and MIP-2α, and the expression was further enhanced in the presence of corticosteroid. Moreover, curcumin restored HDAC2 expression, decreased the levels of H3/H4 acetylation, and increased H3K9 methylation in the promoter region of chemokine in the presence or absence of dexamethasone (all P<0.05).

          Conclusion

          Curcumin may suppress chemokines and restore corticosteroid resistance in COPD through modulating HDAC2 expression and its effect on histone modification.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Glucocorticoid resistance in inflammatory diseases.

          Glucocorticoid resistance or insensitivity is a major barrier to the treatment of several common inflammatory diseases-including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome; it is also an issue for some patients with asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Several molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance have now been identified, including activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by certain cytokines, excessive activation of the transcription factor activator protein 1, reduced histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) expression, raised macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and increased P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux. Patients with glucocorticoid resistance can be treated with alternative broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory treatments, such as calcineurin inhibitors and other immunomodulators, or novel anti-inflammatory treatments, such as inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4 or nuclear factor kappaB, although these drugs are all likely to have major side-effects. An alternative treatment strategy is to reverse glucocorticoid resistance by blocking its underlying mechanisms. Some examples of this approach are inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, use of vitamin D to restore interleukin-10 response, activation of HDAC2 expression by use of theophylline, antioxidants, or phosphoinositide-3-kinase-delta inhibitors, and inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and P-glycoprotein.
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            Decreased histone deacetylase activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation that is greater in patients with advanced disease. We asked whether there is a link between the severity of disease and the reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the peripheral lung tissue of patients with COPD of varying severity. HDAC is a key molecule in the repression of production of proinflammatory cytokines in alveolar macrophages. HDAC activity and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity were determined in nuclear extracts of specimens of surgically resected lung tissue from nonsmokers without COPD, patients with COPD of varying severity, and patients with pneumonia or cystic fibrosis. Alveolar macrophages from nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with COPD and bronchial-biopsy specimens from nonsmokers, healthy smokers, patients with COPD, and those with mild asthma were also examined. Total RNA extracted from lung tissue and macrophages was used for quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay of HDAC1 through HDAC8 and interleukin-8. Expression of HDAC2 protein was quantified with the use of Western blotting. Histone-4 acetylation at the interleukin-8 promoter was evaluated with the use of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Specimens of lung tissue obtained from patients with increasing clinical stages of COPD had graded reductions in HDAC activity and increases in interleukin-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and histone-4 acetylation at the interleukin-8 promoter. The mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, and HDAC8 and expression of the HDAC2 protein were also lower in patients with increasing severity of disease. HDAC activity was decreased in patients with COPD, as compared with normal subjects, in both the macrophages and biopsy specimens, with no changes in HAT activity, whereas HAT activity was increased in biopsy specimens obtained from patients with asthma. Neither HAT activity nor HDAC activity was changed in lung tissue from patients with cystic fibrosis or pneumonia. Patients with COPD have a progressive reduction in total HDAC activity that reflects the severity of the disease. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Corticosteroid resistance in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

               Peter Barnes (2013)
              Reduced responsiveness to the anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids is a major barrier to effective management of asthma in smokers and patients with severe asthma and in the majority of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The molecular mechanisms leading to steroid resistance are now better understood, and this has identified new targets for therapy. In patients with severe asthma, several molecular mechanisms have been identified that might account for reduced steroid responsiveness, including reduced nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) α after binding corticosteroids. This might be due to modification of the GR by means of phosphorylation as a result of activation of several kinases (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase α, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase γ, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1), which in turn might be due to reduced activity and expression of phosphatases, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase A2. Other mechanisms proposed include increased expression of GRβ, which competes with and thus inhibits activated GRα; increased secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor; competition with the transcription factor activator protein 1; and reduced expression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2. HDAC2 appears to mediate the action of steroids to switch off activated inflammatory genes, but in patients with COPD, patients with severe asthma, and smokers with asthma, HDAC2 activity and expression are reduced by oxidative stress through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ. Strategies for managing steroid resistance include alternative anti-inflammatory drugs, but a novel approach is to reverse steroid resistance by increasing HDAC2 expression, which can be achieved with theophylline and phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ inhibitors. Long-acting β2-agonists can also increase steroid responsiveness by reversing GRα phosphorylation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms of steroid resistance in asthmatic patients and patients with COPD can thus lead to more effective anti-inflammatory treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                07 November 2016
                : 11
                : 2765-2773
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xuejun Guo, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 159 2141 4364, Email guoxjz@ 123456yahoo.com.cn
                Article
                copd-11-2765
                10.2147/COPD.S113978
                5106221
                © 2016 Gan et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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