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      Intravitreal Bevacizumab versus Triamcinolone Acetonide for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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          Background: To compare an intravitreal high-dose injection of triamcinolone acetonide with an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for the treatment of progressive exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Method: The comparative nonrandomized retrospective clinical interventional study included 305 patients with progressive AMD, divided into a bevacizumab group of 36 patients (1.5 mg bevacizumab) and a triamcinolone group of 269 patients (about 20 mg triamcinolone). All patients were consecutively included, in the first phase of the study for triamcinolone, and in the second phase of the study for bevacizumab. The mean follow-up was 8.5 ± 6.8 months (2–35.7 months). Results: In the bevacizumab group, best visual acuity increased significantly (p < 0.001) by 3.2 ± 3.4 Snellen lines, with 25 (69%) eyes and 21 (58%) eyes, improving by at least 2 and 3 Snellen lines, respectively. In the triamcinolone group, the visual acuity change was not statistically significant for any specific follow-up examination within the first 3 months. The maximal increase in visual acuity, the visual acuity change at 2 months after injection and the percentage of patients with an improvement by at least 2 and 3 Snellen lines were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the bevacizumab group than in the triamcinolone group. Intraocular pressure increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the triamcinolone group and did not change significantly (p = 0.47) in the bevacizumab group. Conclusion: In exudative AMD, intravitreal bevacizumab (1.5 mg) compared with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (about 20 mg) results in a higher improvement of visual acuity and does not markedly influence intraocular pressure within 2 months after injection.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Pegaptanib for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

           ,  A Adamis,  Brian Cunningham (2004)
          Pegaptanib, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, was evaluated in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. We conducted two concurrent, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, dose-ranging, controlled clinical trials using broad entry criteria. Intravitreous injection into one eye per patient of pegaptanib (at a dose of 0.3 mg, 1.0 mg, or 3.0 mg) or sham injections were administered every 6 weeks over a period of 48 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who had lost fewer than 15 letters of visual acuity at 54 weeks. In the combined analysis of the primary end point (for a total of 1186 patients), efficacy was demonstrated, without a dose-response relationship, for all three doses of pegaptanib (P<0.001 for the comparison of 0.3 mg with sham injection; P<0.001 for the comparison of 1.0 mg with sham injection; and P=0.03 for the comparison of 3.0 mg with sham injection). In the group given pegaptanib at 0.3 mg, 70 percent of patients lost fewer than 15 letters of visual acuity, as compared with 55 percent among the controls (P<0.001). The risk of severe loss of visual acuity (loss of 30 letters or more) was reduced from 22 percent in the sham-injection group to 10 percent in the group receiving 0.3 mg of pegaptanib (P<0.001). More patients receiving pegaptanib (0.3 mg), as compared with sham injection, maintained their visual acuity or gained acuity (33 percent vs. 23 percent; P=0.003). As early as six weeks after beginning therapy with the study drug, and at all subsequent points, the mean visual acuity among patients receiving 0.3 mg of pegaptanib was better than in those receiving sham injections (P<0.002). Among the adverse events that occurred, endophthalmitis (in 1.3 percent of patients), traumatic injury to the lens (in 0.7 percent), and retinal detachment (in 0.6 percent) were the most serious and required vigilance. These events were associated with a severe loss of visual acuity in 0.1 percent of patients. Pegaptanib appears to be an effective therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Its long-term safety is not known. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

            To report the short-term safety, biologic effect, and a possible mechanism of action of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Interventional, consecutive, retrospective case series. Eighty-one eyes of 79 patients with subfoveal neovascular AMD. Patients received intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) on a monthly basis until macular edema, subretinal fluid (SRF), and/or pigment epithelial detachment (PED) resolved. Ophthalmic evaluations included nonstandardized Snellen visual acuity (VA), complete ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Assessments of safety, changes in Snellen VA, OCT retinal thickness, and angiographic lesion characteristics were performed. No significant ocular or systemic side effects were observed. Most patients (55%) had a reduction of >10% of baseline retinal thickness at 1 week after the injection. At 4 weeks after injection, 30 of 81 eyes demonstrated complete resolution of retinal edema, SRF, and PEDs. Of the 51 eyes with 8 weeks' follow-up, 25 had complete resolution of retinal thickening, SRF, and PEDs. At 1, 4, 8,and 12 weeks, the mean retinal thickness of the central 1 mm was decreased by 61, 92, 89, and 67 mum, respectively (P<0.0001 for 1, 4, and 8 weeks and P<0.01 for 12 weeks). At 4 and 8 weeks, mean VA improved from 20/200 to 20/125 (P<0.0001). Median vision improved from 20/200 to 20/80(-) at 4 weeks and from 20/200 to 20/80 at 8 weeks. Short-term results suggest that intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) is well tolerated and associated with improvement in VA, decreased retinal thickness by OCT, and reduction in angiographic leakage in most patients, the majority of whom had previous treatment with photodynamic therapy and/or pegaptanib. Further evaluation of intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization is warranted.
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              Short-term safety and efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

              To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech Inc.) for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). A retrospective review was performed on consented patients with neovascular ARMD receiving intravitreal bevacizumab therapy. All patients received intravitreal bevacizumab at baseline with additional monthly injections given at the discretion of the treating physician. At each visit, a routine Snellen visual acuity assessment was performed followed by an ophthalmic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Fifty-three eyes of 50 patients received an intravitreal bevacizumab injection between May and August 2005. Including the month 3 visit, the average number of injections was 2.3 out of a maximum of 4 injections. No serious drug-related ocular or systemic adverse events were identified. Improvements in visual acuity and central retinal thickness measurements were evident by week 1 and continued through month 3. At month 3, the mean visual acuity improved from 20/160 to 20/125 (P < 0.001) and the mean central retinal thickness decreased by 99.6 microm (P < 0.001). Off-label intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for neovascular ARMD was well tolerated over 3 months with improvements in visual acuity and OCT central retinal thickness measurements. While the long-term safety and efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab remain unknown, these short-term results suggest that intravitreal bevacizumab may be the most cost effective therapy for the treatment of neovascular ARMD.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2008
                13 October 2008
                : 41
                : 1
                : 21-27
                Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht Karl University, Heidelberg, Germany
                162113 Ophthalmic Res 2009;41:21–27
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 55, Pages: 7
                Original Paper


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