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      From water striders to water bugs: the molecular diversity of aquatic Heteroptera (Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha) of Germany based on DNA barcodes

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          Abstract

          With about 5,000 species worldwide, the Heteroptera or true bugs are the most diverse taxon among the hemimetabolous insects in aquatic and semi-aquatic ecosystems. Species may be found in almost every freshwater environment and have very specific habitat requirements, making them excellent bioindicator organisms for water quality. However, a correct determination by morphology is challenging in many species groups due to high morphological variability and polymorphisms within, but low variability between species. Furthermore, it is very difficult or even impossible to identify the immature life stages or females of some species, e.g., of the corixid genus Sigara. In this study we tested the effectiveness of a DNA barcode library to discriminate species of the Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha of Germany. We analyzed about 700 specimens of 67 species, with 63 species sampled in Germany, covering more than 90% of all recorded species. Our library included various morphological similar taxa, e.g., species within the genera Sigara and Notonecta as well as water striders of the genus Gerris. Fifty-five species (82%) were unambiguously assigned to a single Barcode Index Number (BIN) by their barcode sequences, whereas BIN sharing was observed for 10 species. Furthermore, we found monophyletic lineages for 52 analyzed species. Our data revealed interspecific K2P distances with below 2.2% for 18 species. Intraspecific distances above 2.2% were shown for 11 species. We found evidence for hybridization between various corixid species ( Sigara, Callicorixa), but our molecular data also revealed exceptionally high intraspecific distances as a consequence of distinct mitochondrial lineages for Cymatia coleoptrata and the pygmy backswimmer Plea minutissima. Our study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of DNA barcodes for the identification of the aquatic Heteroptera of Germany and adjacent regions. In this context, our data set represents an essential baseline for a reference library for bioassessment studies of freshwater habitats using modern high-throughput technologies in the near future. The existing data also opens new questions regarding the causes of observed low inter- and high intraspecific genetic variation and furthermore highlight the necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa, combining both molecular and morphological data.

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          Universal primer cocktails for fish DNA barcoding

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            Gene flow and species delimitation.

            A defining feature of species is that their constituting populations are connected by gene flow. However, interspecific gene flow (introgression) can affect species integrity. If some genome components were less prone to introgression than others, they should be particularly suitable to delimitate species. Recent simulation studies have predicted a negative correlation between intra- and interspecific gene flow, suggesting that markers associated with the most dispersing sex should better delimitate species. A review of studies of introgression in species with sex-biased dispersal largely confirms this prediction. Hence, species delimitation should be more effective with markers experiencing high levels of gene flow, a simple but not widely appreciated prediction.
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              Biodiversity soup: metabarcoding of arthropods for rapid biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Francisco, USA )
                2167-8359
                2 May 2018
                2018
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Fakultät V, Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften (IBU), Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg , Oldenburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
                [2 ]German Centre of Marine Biodiversity, Senckenberg Nature Research Society , Wilhelmshaven, Lower Saxony, Germany
                [3 ]Forest Entomology, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research , Birmensdorf, Switzerland
                [4 ]Sektion Insecta varia, SNSB-Bavarian State Collection of Zoology , Munich, Bavaria, Germany
                [5 ]Taxonomic coordinator—German Barcode of Life (GBOL), SNSB-Bavarian State Collection of Zoology , Munich, Bavaria, Germany
                [6 ]Department of Biology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg , Oldenburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
                [7 ]B.U.G.S. (Biologische Umwelt-Gutachten Schäfer) , Telgte, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany
                Article
                4577
                10.7717/peerj.4577
                5936072
                f46a0388-e7e2-466a-9c51-7aec85738dc4
                © 2018 Havemann et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
                Award ID: FKZ03F0664A, GBOL2: 01LI1101B
                Funded by: Land Niedersachsen and the Bavarian State Ministry of Education and Culture (BFB)
                Funded by: Government of Canada to Genome Canada through the Ontario Genomics Institute
                Funded by: Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation and NSERC
                This publication was financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FKZ03F0664A, GBOL2: 01LI1101B), the Land Niedersachsen and the Bavarian State Ministry of Education and Culture (BFB). Sequencing work was partly supported by funding from the Government of Canada to Genome Canada through the Ontario Genomics Institute, whereas the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation and NSERC supported development of the BOLD informatics platform. There was no additional external funding received for this study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Biodiversity
                Entomology
                Taxonomy
                Zoology
                Freshwater Biology

                aquatic insects,cymatia,mitochondrial dna,corixidae,plea,taxonomy,freshwater,sigara,gbol,cytochrome c oxidase subunit i

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