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      Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility in clinical specimens from Nigeria using genotype MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays

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          The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and especially multidrug-resistant TB (MDR) continues to increase alarmingly worldwide, and reliable and fast diagnosis of MDR is essential for the adequate treatment of patients. In contrast to the standard culture methods, nucleid acid amplification tests (NAATs) provide information about presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA and a potential resistance pattern within hours. We analyzed specimens of 110 patients from Nigeria comparing culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) to NAAT assays detecting isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) (GenoType MTBDRplus), and ethambutol (EMB) (GenoType MTBDRsl) resistance. Compared to DST, the GenoType MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl showed a specificity of 100% (86.3–100) and a sensitivity of 86% (42.1–99.6%) for detection of INH and a specificity of 100% (86.3–100) and a sensitivity of 83% (35.9–99.6%) for detection of RMP, and a sensitivity 100% (47.8–100%) for EMB resistance. However, in two strains, the NAAT assays provided false susceptible results as the mutations causing resistance were in genomic regions not covered by the probes of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay. We show that, in combination to DST, application of the GenoType MTBDRplus and GenoType MTBDRsl assays might be a useful additional tool to allow a rapid and safe diagnosis of MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTBC.

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          Most cited references12

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          Commercial Nucleic-Acid Amplification Tests for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Respiratory Specimens: Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

          Background Hundreds of studies have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of nucleic-acid amplification tests (NAATs) for tuberculosis (TB). Commercial tests have been shown to give more consistent results than in-house assays. Previous meta-analyses have found high specificity but low and highly variable estimates of sensitivity. However, reasons for variability in study results have not been adequately explored. We performed a meta-analysis on the accuracy of commercial NAATs to diagnose pulmonary TB and meta-regression to identify factors that are associated with higher accuracy. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 2948 citations from searching the literature. We found 402 articles that met our eligibility criteria. In the final analysis, 125 separate studies from 105 articles that reported NAAT results from respiratory specimens were included. The pooled sensitivity was 0.85 (range 0.36–1.00) and the pooled specificity was 0.97 (range 0.54–1.00). However, both measures were significantly heterogeneous (p<.001). We performed subgroup and meta-regression analyses to identify sources of heterogeneity. Even after stratifying by type of commercial test, we could not account for the variability. In the meta-regression, the threshold effect was significant (p = .01) and the use of other respiratory specimens besides sputum was associated with higher accuracy. Conclusions/Significance The sensitivity and specificity estimates for commercial NAATs in respiratory specimens were highly variable, with sensitivity lower and more inconsistent than specificity. Thus, summary measures of diagnostic accuracy are not clinically meaningful. The use of different cut-off values and the use of specimens other than sputum could explain some of the observed heterogeneity. Based on these observations, commercial NAATs alone cannot be recommended to replace conventional tests for diagnosing pulmonary TB. Improvements in diagnostic accuracy, particularly sensitivity, need to be made in order for this expensive technology to be worthwhile and beneficial in low-resource countries.
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            Genotypic assessment of isoniazid and rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a blind study at reference laboratory level.

            Progress in understanding the basis of resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RMP) has allowed molecular tests for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis to be developed. Consecutive isolates (n = 95) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, from a Spanish reference laboratory investigating outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, were coded and sent to two external laboratories for genotypic analysis of INH and RMP resistance by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of specific regions of four genes: part of the coding sequence of katG and the promoter regions of inhA and ahpC for INH and the RMP resistance region of rpoB. After correction for the presence of outbreak strains and multiple isolates from single patients, RMP resistance was detected successfully by PCR-SSCP in > 96% of the RMP-resistant strains. PCR-SSCP had a sensitivity of 87% for INH resistance detection, and mutations in katG, inhA, katG-inhA, ahpC, and katG-ahpC were identified in 36.8, 31.6, 2.6, 13.2, and 2.6%, respectively, of the unique strains. Specificity was 100%. Molecular detection of resistance to the two main antituberculous drugs, INH and RMP, can be accomplished accurately by using a strategy which limits analysis to four genetic regions. This may allow the expedient analysis of drug resistance by reference laboratories.
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              High prevalence of KatG Ser315Thr substitution among isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from northwestern Russia, 1996 to 2001.

              A total of 204 isoniazid (INH)-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from different patients in the northwestern region of Russia from 1996 to 2001 were screened by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. This assay uses HapII cleavage of an amplified fragment of the katG gene to detect the transversion 315AGC-->ACC (Ser-->Thr), which is associated with INH resistance. This analysis revealed a 93.6% prevalence of the katG S315T mutation in strains from patients with both newly and previously diagnosed cases of tuberculosis (TB). This mutation was not found in any of 57 INH-susceptible isolates included in the study. The specificity of the assay was 100%; all isolates that contained the S315T mutation were classified as resistant by a culture-based susceptibility testing method. The Beijing genotype, defined by IS6110-RFLP analysis and the spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) method, was found in 60.3% of the INH-resistant strains studied. The katG S315T shift was more prevalent among Beijing genotype strains than among non-Beijing genotype strains: 97.8 versus 84.6%, respectively, for all isolates, including those from patients with new and previously diagnosed cases, isolated from 1999 to 2001 and 100.0 versus 86.5%, respectively, for isolates from patients with new cases isolated from 1996 to 2001. The design of this PCR-RFLP assay allows the rapid and unambiguous identification of the katG 315ACC mutant allele. The simplicity of the assay permits its implementation into routine practice in clinical microbiology laboratories in regions with a high incidence of TB where this mutation is predominant, including northwestern Russia.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 December 2013
                : 3
                : 4
                : 252-257
                [ 1 ] Institute of Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
                [ 2 ] Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
                [ 3 ] Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Johann-Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
                [ 4 ] Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Tübingen, Elfriede-Aulhorn-Str.6, D-72076, Tübingen, Germany
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship.

                [* ] 0049 7071 29 82352, 0049 7071 29 5440, julia-stefanie.frick@ 123456med.uni-tuebingen.de
                Original Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex,drug susceptibility testing,GenoType,Nigeria


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