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      Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer: 2010 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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          Abstract

          This document updates and expands the initial Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Fever and Neutropenia Guideline that was published in 1997 and first updated in 2002. It is intended as a guide for the use of antimicrobial agents in managing patients with cancer who experience chemotherapy-induced fever and neutropenia. Recent advances in antimicrobial drug development and technology, clinical trial results, and extensive clinical experience have informed the approaches and recommendations herein. Because the previous iteration of this guideline in 2002, we have a developed a clearer definition of which populations of patients with cancer may benefit most from antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral prophylaxis. Furthermore, categorizing neutropenic patients as being at high risk or low risk for infection according to presenting signs and symptoms, underlying cancer, type of therapy, and medical comorbidities has become essential to the treatment algorithm. Risk stratification is a recommended starting point for managing patients with fever and neutropenia. In addition, earlier detection of invasive fungal infections has led to debate regarding optimal use of empirical or preemptive antifungal therapy, although algorithms are still evolving. What has not changed is the indication for immediate empirical antibiotic therapy. It remains true that all patients who present with fever and neutropenia should be treated swiftly and broadly with antibiotics to treat both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. Finally, we note that all Panel members are from institutions in the United States or Canada; thus, these guidelines were developed in the context of North American practices. Some recommendations may not be as applicable outside of North America, in areas where differences in available antibiotics, in the predominant pathogens, and/or in health care-associated economic conditions exist. Regardless of venue, clinical vigilance and immediate treatment are the universal keys to managing neutropenic patients with fever and/or infection.

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          2006 update of recommendations for the use of white blood cell growth factors: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

          To update the 2000 American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline on the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors (CSF). The Update Committee completed a review and analysis of pertinent data published from 1999 through September 2005. Guided by the 1996 ASCO clinical outcomes criteria, the Update Committee formulated recommendations based on improvements in survival, quality of life, toxicity reduction and cost-effectiveness. The 2005 Update Committee agreed unanimously that reduction in febrile neutropenia (FN) is an important clinical outcome that justifies the use of CSFs, regardless of impact on other factors, when the risk of FN is approximately 20% and no other equally effective regimen that does not require CSFs is available. Primary prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of FN in patients who are at high risk based on age, medical history, disease characteristics, and myelotoxicity of the chemotherapy regimen. CSF use allows a modest to moderate increase in dose-density and/or dose-intensity of chemotherapy regimens. Dose-dense regimens should only be used within an appropriately designed clinical trial or if supported by convincing efficacy data. Prophylactic CSF for patients with diffuse aggressive lymphoma aged 65 years and older treated with curative chemotherapy (CHOP or more aggressive regimens) should be given to reduce the incidence of FN and infections. Current recommendations for the management of patients exposed to lethal doses of total body radiotherapy, but not doses high enough to lead to certain death due to injury to other organs, includes the prompt administration of CSF or pegylated G-CSF.
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            Mortality, morbidity, and cost associated with febrile neutropenia in adult cancer patients.

            Hospitalization for febrile neutropenia (FN) in cancer patients is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and cost. The study was undertaken to better define mortality, length of stay (LOS), cost, and risk factors associated with mortality and prolonged hospitalization in cancer patients with FN. The longitudinal discharge database derived from 115 US medical centers was used to study all adult cancer patients hospitalized with FN between 1995 and 2000, comprising a total of 41,779 patients. Primary outcomes included mortality, LOS, and cost per episode. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 9.5%. Patients without any major comorbidities had a 2.6% risk of mortality, whereas 1 major comorbidity was associated with a 10.3% and more than 1 major comorbidity with a > or = 21.4% risk of mortality, respectively. Mean (median) length of stay was 11.5 (6) days, and the mean (median) cost was $19,110 ($8,376) per episode of FN. Patients hospitalized for > or = 10 days (35% of all patients) accounted for 78% of overall cost. Independent major risk factors for inpatient mortality included invasive fungal infections, Gram-negative sepsis, pneumonia and other lung disease, cerebrovascular, renal, and liver disease. Main predictors for LOS > or = 10 days included leukemia, invasive fungal infections, other types of infection, and several comorbid conditions. Factors associated with increased mortality, LOS, and cost in hospitalized adult cancer patients with FN include patient characteristics, type of malignancy, comorbidities, and infectious complications. These factors may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk of serious medical complications and mortality for more aggressive supportive care measures. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society
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              2002 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1058-4838
                1537-6591
                February 15 2011
                February 15 2011
                February 15 2011
                February 15 2011
                February 15 2011
                February 15 2011
                : 52
                : 4
                : e56-e93
                Article
                10.1093/cid/cir073
                21258094
                © 2011

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