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      Susceptibility of Adults of the Cerambycid Beetle Hedypathes betulinus to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Purpureocillium Lilacinum

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          Abstract

          The cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus (Klug) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) causes severe damage to yerba mate plants ( Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) (Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae)), which results in large losses of production. In this study, the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi of the species Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Hywel-Jones, Houbraken and Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on yerba mate were evaluated. Fifteen isolates of B. bassiana, two of M. anisopliae, and seven of P. lilacinum on H. betulinus adults were analyzed under laboratory conditions. The raw mortality rate caused by B. bassiana isolates varied from 51.1 to 86.3%, and their LT 50 values varied between 8.7 and 13.6 d. The isolates of M. anisopliae caused 69.6–81.8% mortality, and their LT 50 values varied between 7.4 and 7.9 d. In contrast, isolates of P. lilacinum were not pathogenic. M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic against H. betulinus adults, suggesting that they may be useful in biological control programs for insect pests of yerba mate.

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          Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and pathogenicity.

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            Host-pathogen interactions: the attributes of virulence.

            Virulence is one of a number of possible outcomes of host-microbe interaction. As such, microbial virulence is dependent on host factors, as exemplified by the pathogenicity of avirulent microbes in immunocompromised hosts and the lack of pathogenicity of virulent pathogens in immune hosts. Pathogen-centered views of virulence assert that pathogens are distinguished from nonpathogens by their expression of virulence factors. Although this concept appears to apply to certain microbes that cause disease in normal hosts, it does not apply to most microbes that cause disease primarily in immunocompromised hosts. The study of virulence is fraught with the paradox that virulence, despite being a microbial characteristic, can only be expressed in a susceptible host. Thus, the question "What is a pathogen?" begs the question, "What is the outcome of the host-microbe interaction?" We propose that host damage provides a common denominator that translates into the different outcomes of host-microbe interaction.
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              Fungal secondary metabolites as modulators of interactions with insects and other arthropods.

              Fungi share a diverse co-evolutionary history with animals, especially arthropods. In this review, we focus on the role of secondary metabolism in driving antagonistic arthropod-fungus interactions, i.e., where fungi serve as a food source to fungal grazers, compete with saprophagous insects, and attack insects as hosts for growth and reproduction. Although a wealth of studies on animal-fungus interactions point to a crucial role of secondary metabolites in deterring animal feeding and resisting immune defense strategies, causal evidence often remains to be provided. Moreover, it still remains an unresolved puzzle as to what extent the tight regulatory control of secondary metabolite formation in some model fungi represents an evolved chemical defense system favored by selective pressure through animal antagonists. Given these gaps in knowledge, we highlight some co-evolutionary aspects of secondary metabolism, such as induced response, volatile signaling, and experimental evolution, which may help in deciphering the ecological importance and evolutionary history of secondary metabolite production in fungi. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Insect Sci
                J. Insect Sci
                insc
                Journal of Insect Science
                University of Wisconsin Library
                1536-2442
                2014
                15 September 2014
                : 14
                : 127
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE-CONICET-UNLP). Boulevard 120 S/N e/61 y 62 (B1902CHX). La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [2 ]Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE). Laboratório de Biotecnologia Agrícola. Campus Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil
                [3 ]Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CIPEIN-CITEDEF/CONICET), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM), Argentina
                Author notes
                [*] [* ]Corresponding author

                Editor: Paul Ode was editor of this paper.

                Article
                10.1673/031.014.127
                4228828
                25368071
                f47bb88c-b9f7-40bf-b72e-c2e226e9256c
                © 2014

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 30 October 2012
                : 21 August 2013
                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Categories
                Article

                Entomology
                biological control,pathogenicity,insect pests,yerba mate
                Entomology
                biological control, pathogenicity, insect pests, yerba mate

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