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      A Centenary of Auscultatory Blood Pressure Measurement: A Tribute to Nikolai Korotkoff

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          Abstract

          In 1905, Dr. Nikolai Korotkoff (1874–1920), a Russian surgeon, discovered a simple and precise technique to measure arterial pressure. He was born on 26th February 1874 in the central Russian city of Kursk. Korotkoff graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University in 1898, but he worked later in the Surgical Clinic at the Imperial Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg (Russia). Korotkoff served as a military surgeon during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) and his major efforts were to find reliable clinical signs that could predict whether limb flow would be viable after vascular surgery of traumatic aneurysm. He found that after complete compression, the aneurysm of the arm (i.e. distal pulse on a. brachialis) disappeared with Riva-Rocci cuff and then gradually decreasing the pressure, a series of sounds could be heard by stethoscope under the artery distal to the compression. Korotkoff described four distinct phases of sounds: first sound, then compression murmurs, second tone, and disappearance of sounds. Korotkoff was also able to demonstrate the same auscultatory finding in healthy persons. He failed to notice only the muffled second sound, which was demonstrated a little later. These classical observations are now well known as the five different phases of Korotkoff sounds. In November 1905, during a conference of the Imperial Military Medical Academy, he reported his discovery in a short presentation entitled ‘On the issue of the methods for measuring blood pressure’. In 1939, the Joint Committee of the American Heart Association and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain and Ireland recognized officially and accepted worldwide Korotkoff’s method for blood pressure determining.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Frederick Akbar Mahomed and his role in the description of hypertension at Guy's Hospital.

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            Historical notes. Dr N S Korotkov: the low-pitch sounds that stand high

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              KBR
              Kidney Blood Press Res
              10.1159/issn.1420-4096
              Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
              S. Karger AG
              1420-4096
              1423-0143
              2005
              December 2005
              27 December 2005
              : 28
              : 4
              : 259-263
              Affiliations
              aClinic of Nephrology and Dialysis, University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Medical University ‘Prof. Dr. P. Stoyanov’, Varna, bDepartment of Clinical Epidemiology, Multi-Profile Hospital for Active Therapy ‘St. Anna – Varna’, Varna, and cHaemodialysis Unit, UMHAT ‘Tzaritza Ioanna’, Sofia, Bulgaria
              Article
              90084 Kidney Blood Press Res 2005;28:259–263
              10.1159/000090084
              16340219
              © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              References: 13, Pages: 5
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/90084
              Categories
              Review Article

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

              Blood pressure measurement, Historical background, Korotkoff

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