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      Ultrafine Pt‐Based Nanowires for Advanced Catalysis

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1
      Advanced Functional Materials
      Wiley

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          Recent advances in transition metal phosphide nanomaterials: synthesis and applications in hydrogen evolution reaction.

          The urgent need of clean and renewable energy drives the exploration of effective strategies to produce molecular hydrogen. With the assistance of highly active non-noble metal electrocatalysts, electrolysis of water is becoming a promising candidate to generate pure hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Very recently, transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have been proven to be high performance catalysts with high activity, high stability, and nearly ∼100% Faradic efficiency in not only strong acidic solutions, but also in strong alkaline and neutral media for electrochemical hydrogen evolution. In this tutorial review, an overview of recent development of TMP nanomaterials as catalysts for hydrogen generation with high activity and stability is presented. The effects of phosphorus (P) on HER activity, and their synthetic methods of TMPs are briefly discussed. Then we will demonstrate the specific strategies to further improve the catalytic efficiency and stability of TMPs by structural engineering. Making use of TMPs as cocatalysts and catalysts in photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting is also discussed. Finally, some key challenges and issues which should not be ignored during the rapid development of TMPs are pointed out. These strategies and challenges of TMPs are instructive for designing other high-performance non-noble metal catalysts.
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            Lattice-strain control of the activity in dealloyed core-shell fuel cell catalysts.

            Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We demonstrate the core-shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity-strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.
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              Engineering bunched Pt-Ni alloy nanocages for efficient oxygen reduction in practical fuel cells

              Development of efficient and robust electrocatalysts is critical for practical fuel cells. We report one-dimensional bunched platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) alloy nanocages with a Pt-skin structure for the oxygen reduction reaction that display high mass activity (3.52 amperes per milligram platinum) and specific activity (5.16 milliamperes per square centimeter platinum), or nearly 17 and 14 times higher as compared with a commercial platinum on carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. The catalyst exhibits high stability with negligible activity decay after 50,000 cycles. Both the experimental results and theoretical calculations reveal the existence of fewer strongly bonded platinum-oxygen (Pt-O) sites induced by the strain and ligand effects. Moreover, the fuel cell assembled by this catalyst delivers a current density of 1.5 amperes per square centimeter at 0.6 volts and can operate steadily for at least 180 hours.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Advanced Functional Materials
                Adv. Funct. Mater.
                Wiley
                1616-301X
                1616-3028
                July 2020
                April 19 2020
                July 2020
                : 30
                : 28
                : 2000793
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Chemistry Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Soochow University Suzhou 215123 P. R. China
                Article
                10.1002/adfm.202000793
                f487d2ef-27e1-462f-aa48-54542c2d180e
                © 2020

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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