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      PediaFlow™ Maglev Ventricular Assist Device: A Prescriptive Design Approach

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          Most cited references52

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          Extended mechanical circulatory support with a continuous-flow rotary left ventricular assist device.

          This study sought to evaluate the use of a continuous-flow rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as a bridge to heart transplantation. LVAD therapy is an established treatment modality for patients with advanced heart failure. Pulsatile LVADs have limitations in design precluding their use for extended support. Continuous-flow rotary LVADs represent an innovative design with potential for small size and greater reliability by simplification of the pumping mechanism. In a prospective, multicenter study, 281 patients urgently listed (United Network of Organ Sharing status 1A or 1B) for heart transplantation underwent implantation of a continuous-flow LVAD. Survival and transplantation rates were assessed at 18 months. Patients were assessed for adverse events throughout the study and for quality of life, functional status, and organ function for 6 months. Of 281 patients, 222 (79%) underwent transplantation, LVAD removal for cardiac recovery, or had ongoing LVAD support at 18-month follow-up. Actuarial survival on support was 72% (95% confidence interval: 65% to 79%) at 18 months. At 6 months, there were significant improvements in functional status and 6-min walk test (from 0% to 83% of patients in New York Heart Association functional class I or II and from 13% to 89% of patients completing a 6-min walk test) and in quality of life (mean values improved 41% with Minnesota Living With Heart Failure and 75% with Kansas City Cardiomyopathy questionnaires). Major adverse events included bleeding, stroke, right heart failure, and percutaneous lead infection. Pump thrombosis occurred in 4 patients. A continuous-flow LVAD provides effective hemodynamic support for at least 18 months in patients awaiting transplantation, with improved functional status and quality of life. (Thoratec HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System [LVAS] for Bridge to Cardiac Transplantation; NCT00121472).
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            Red blood cell damage by shear stress.

            A series of careful studies has been made on blood damage in a rotational viscometer. Specific attention has been focused on the effects of solid surface interaction, centrifugal force, air interface interaction, mixing of sheared and unsheared layers, cell-cell interaction, and viscous heating. The results show that there is a threshold shear stress, 1500 dynes/cm(2), above which extensive cell damage is directly due to shear stress, and the various secondary effects listed above are negligible. By analysis of these results and those of prior workers it is shown that the exposure time-shear stress plane is divided into two distinct regimes. In the regime of relatively low stresses and exposure times there is relatively little damage, and the damage is dominated by solid surface interaction effects. In the other regime, at high stresses and exposure times, stress effects alone dominate and very high rates of hemolysis occur. The experimental findings of all prior workers are shown to be consistent when interpreted in this way.
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              Estimation of shear stress-related blood damage in heart valve prostheses--in vitro comparison of 25 aortic valves.

              The hemodynamics of heart valve prostheses can be reproducibly investigated in vitro within circulatory mock loops. By measuring the downstream velocity and shear stress fields the shear stresses which are clinically responsible for damage to platelets and red blood cells can be determined. The mechanisms of damage and the effects of shear stresses on blood corpuscles were investigated by Wurzinger et al. at the Aerodynamics Institute of the RWTH Aachen. In the present study, the above data are incorporated into a mathematical correlation, which serves as a basic model for the estimation of blood damage. This mathematical model was applied to in vitro investigations of 25 different aortic valve prostheses. The results were compared to clinical findings. In most cases agreement was good, indicating that this model may be directly applied to the clinical situation. This new method facilitates the estimation of clinically expected blood damage from in vitro measurements. It may be useful for the development and evaluation of new valve prostheses. By comparative evaluation of different valve types it also provides additional information to help the implanting surgeon select the optimum valve for his patient.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
                Cardiovasc Eng Tech
                Springer Nature
                1869-408X
                1869-4098
                March 2010
                March 2 2010
                March 2010
                : 1
                : 1
                : 104-121
                Article
                10.1007/s13239-010-0011-9
                f498b4ac-8b49-4ac9-af9d-b07c5a495165
                © 2010
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