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      Dificuldades relacionadas ao aleitamento materno: análise de um serviço especializado em amamentação Translated title: Breastfeeding difficulties: analysis of a service specialized in breastfeeding Translated title: Dificultades relacionadas a la lactancia materna: análisis de un servicio especializado en el amamantamiento

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          Abstract

          Resumo Objetivo Analisar a associação entre o tipo de aleitamento e as dificuldades relacionadas à essa prática entre mulheres e crianças assistidas em um ambulatório especializado em amamentação. Métodos Estudo transversal retrospectivo realizado por meio da análise de prontuários de crianças e mulheres atendidas entre 2004 e 2016 em um ambulatório especializado em aleitamento materno. Foram excluídos os registros referentes às mulheres com gestação múltipla e àqueles não realizados em formulário padrão, totalizando 1.608 prontuários. Utilizaram-se os testes Qui-Quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis para comparar o tipo de aleitamento materno com variáveis categóricas; e com os dias de vida e idade materna, respectivamente. O teste Mann-Whitney utilizou-se para comparar a frequência do aleitamento materno exclusivo. Resultados O aleitamento materno exclusivo foi praticado por 72,6% das mulheres atendidas, nos primeiros 30 dias após o parto. Houve associação significativa entre esta prática e as dificuldades: percepção materna quanto à quantidade de leite produzida, de mamas cheias antes das mamadas, de vazamento de leite e extração manual do leite com facilidade; posicionamento materno e da criança, preensão, sucção e deglutição da criança adequados; além das variáveis: maior escolaridade, situação conjugal estável; ter tido experiência prévia com aleitamento materno, ter mamilos protrusos, ter realizado contato precoce pele a pele, ter filhos com menor média de dias de idade e que faziam uso de chupeta. Conclusão O aleitamento materno exclusivo foi o mais prevalente nos primeiros 30 dias pós-parto e diversas variáveis maternas e neonatais estiveram associadas à essa prática no primeiro atendimento em ambulatório especializado.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Objective To analyze the association between the type of breastfeeding and the difficulties related to this practice among women and children assisted in a clinic specialized in breastfeeding. Methods Cross-sectional retrospective study based on the analysis of medical records of women and children assisted in a clinic specialized in breastfeeding from 2004 to 2016. Medical records of women with multiple pregnancies and documents registered as nonstandard forms were excluded, which resulted in a sample with 1,608 records. The chi-square, nonparametric Mann-Whitney, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to compare the type of breastfeeding with categorical variables, frequency of exclusive breastfeeding, and days of life and maternal age, respectively. Results Exclusive breastfeeding was practiced by 72.6% of the assisted women in the first 30 days after childbirth. There was a significant association between this practice and the following difficulties: maternal perception regarding the volume of produced milk, full breasts before breastfeeding, milk leakage, and easy manual milk extraction; proper positioning of mother and child, latch, suction, and swallowing by the child; in addition to the following characteristics: higher level of education; stable marital status; previous experience with breastfeeding; protruding nipples; early skin-to-skin contact with the child; and children with a lower average number of days of life and who used pacifiers. Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding prevailed in the first 30 days after childbirth and several maternal and neonatal variables were associated with this practice in the first appointment in the specialized clinic.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Objetivo Analizar la asociación entre el tipo de amamantamiento y las dificultades relacionadas con esta práctica entre las mujeres y los niños atendidos en una clínica especializada en la lactancia materna. Métodos Estudio transversal retrospectivo llevado a cabo por medio del análisis de expedientes de niños y mujeres atendidas entre 2004 y 2016, en una clínica especializada en lactancia materna. Se excluyeron los registros referentes a las mujeres con gestación múltiple y a los no realizados de forma estándar, totalizando 1.608 expedientes. Se utilizaron las pruebas Qui-cuadrado y Kruskal-Wallis para comparar el tipo de lactancia materna con variables categóricas; y con los días de vida y edad materna, respectivamente. La prueba Mann-Whitney fue utilizada para comparar la frecuencia de la lactancia materna exclusiva. Resultados La lactancia exclusiva fue practicada por el 72,6% de las mujeres atendidas en los primeros 30 días después del parto. Se observó una asociación significativa entre esta práctica y las dificultades: percepción materna en cuanto a la cantidad de leche producida, de mamas llenas antes de las tomas, de fuga de leche y extracción manual de leche con facilidad; posicionamiento materno y del niño, prensión, succión y deglución del niño adecuados; además de las variables: mayor escolaridad, situación conyugal estable; haber tenido experiencia previa con la lactancia materna, tener pezones sobresalientes, haber realizado contacto precoz piel a piel, tener hijos con menor promedio de días de edad y que hacían uso de chupete. Conclusión La lactancia materna exclusiva fue lo más prevalente en los primeros 30 días después del parto y diversas variables maternas y neonatales fueron asociados con esta práctica en la primera atención en clínicas especializadas.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

          The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor.
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            Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?

            Despite its established benefits, breastfeeding is no longer a norm in many communities. Multifactorial determinants of breastfeeding need supportive measures at many levels, from legal and policy directives to social attitudes and values, women's work and employment conditions, and health-care services to enable women to breastfeed. When relevant interventions are delivered adequately, breastfeeding practices are responsive and can improve rapidly. The best outcomes are achieved when interventions are implemented concurrently through several channels. The marketing of breastmilk substitutes negatively affects breastfeeding: global sales in 2014 of US$44·8 billion show the industry's large, competitive claim on infant feeding. Not breastfeeding is associated with lower intelligence and economic losses of about $302 billion annually or 0·49% of world gross national income. Breastfeeding provides short-term and long-term health and economic and environmental advantages to children, women, and society. To realise these gains, political support and financial investment are needed to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.
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              Why mothers stop breastfeeding: mothers' self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year.

              Our goal was to determine why women stop breastfeeding at various times during their infant's first year. We analyzed self-reported data from 1323 mothers who participated in the Infant Feeding Practice Study II. Mail questionnaires were sent to mothers approximately 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 1/2, and 12 months after their child's birth, in which they were asked to rate the importance of 32 reasons for their decision to stop breastfeeding. We applied exploratory factorial analysis to extract meaningful constructs of mothers' responses to the 32 reasons. We then compared the percentages of mothers who indicated that each reason was important in their decision to stop breastfeeding among various weaning ages and used multiple logistic regression models to examine sociodemographic differences in the most frequently cited reasons for stopping breastfeeding. The perception that their infant was not satisfied by breast milk alone was cited consistently as 1 of the top 3 reasons in the mothers' decision to stop breastfeeding regardless of weaning age (43.5%-55.6%) and was even more frequent among Hispanic mothers and mothers with annual household incomes of or = 9 months of age. Our findings about the major reasons why mothers stop breastfeeding at various times during their child's first year should be useful to health professionals when attempting to help mothers overcome breastfeeding barriers and to health officials attempting to devise targeted breastfeeding interventions on those issues prominent for each infant age.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ape
                Acta Paulista de Enfermagem
                Acta paul. enferm.
                Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0103-2100
                1982-0194
                July 2018
                : 31
                : 4
                : 430-438
                Affiliations
                São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Federal de São Paulo orgdiv1Escola Paulista de Enfermagem Brazil
                Article
                S0103-21002018000400430
                10.1590/1982-0194201800060

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 9
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