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      Use of an Exposome Approach to Understand the Effects of Exposures From the Natural, Built, and Social Environments on Cardio-Vascular Disease Onset, Progression, and Outcomes

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          Abstract

          Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have increased by epidemic proportions in recent years among African Americans in comparison to Whites resulting in significant adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) disparities. Today, African Americans are 30% more likely to die of heart disease than Whites and twice as likely to have a stroke. The causes of these disparities are not yet well-understood. Improved methods for identifying underlying risk factors is a critical first step toward reducing Black:White CVD disparities. This article will focus on environmental exposures in the external environment and how they can lead to changes at the cellular, molecular, and organ level to increase the personal risk for CVD and lead to population level CVD racial disparities. The external environment is defined in three broad domains: natural (air, water, land), built (places you live, work, and play) and social (social, demographic, economic, and political). We will describe how environmental exposures in the natural, built, and social environments “get under the skin” to affect gene expression though epigenetic, pan-omics, and related mechanisms that lead to increased risk for adverse CVD health outcomes and population level disparities. We also will examine the important role of metabolomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, genomics, and epigenomics in understanding how exposures in the natural, built, and social environments lead to CVD disparities with implications for clinical, public health, and policy interventions. In this review, we apply an exposome approach to Black:White CVD racial disparities. The exposome is a measure of all the exposures of an individual across the life course and the relationship of those exposures to health effects. The exposome represents the totality of exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal) exposures from conception onwards, simultaneously distinguishing, characterizing, and quantifying etiologic, mediating, moderating, and co-occurring risk and protective factors and their relationship to disease. Specifically, it assesses the biological mechanisms and underlying pathways through which chemical and non-chemical environmental exposures are associated with CVD onset, progression and outcomes. The exposome is a promising approach for understanding the complex relationships among environment, behavior, biology, genetics, and disease phenotypes that underlie population level, Black: White CVD disparities.

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          Most cited references 159

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          TET enzymes, TDG and the dynamics of DNA demethylation.

          DNA methylation has a profound impact on genome stability, transcription and development. Although enzymes that catalyse DNA methylation have been well characterized, those that are involved in methyl group removal have remained elusive, until recently. The transformative discovery that ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes can oxidize 5-methylcytosine has greatly advanced our understanding of DNA demethylation. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a key nexus in demethylation that can either be passively depleted through DNA replication or actively reverted to cytosine through iterative oxidation and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG)-mediated base excision repair. Methylation, oxidation and repair now offer a model for a complete cycle of dynamic cytosine modification, with mounting evidence for its significance in the biological processes known to involve active demethylation.
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            Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review.

            Current guidelines identify people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as being at high risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Because as many as 19 million Americans may have CKD, a comprehensive summary of this risk would be potentially useful for planning public health policy. A systematic review of the association between non-dialysis-dependent CKD and the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was conducted. Patient- and study-related characteristics that influenced the magnitude of these associations also were investigated. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched, and reference lists through December 2004 were consulted. Authors of 10 primary studies provided additional data. Cohort studies or cohort analyses of randomized, controlled trials that compared mortality between those with and without chronically reduced kidney function were included. Studies were excluded from review when participants were followed for < 1 yr or had ESRD. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study setting, quality, participant and renal function characteristics, and outcomes. Thirty-nine studies that followed a total of 1,371,990 participants were reviewed. The unadjusted relative risk for mortality in participants with reduced kidney function compared with those without ranged from 0.94 to 5.0 and was significantly more than 1.0 in 93% of cohorts. Among the 16 studies that provided suitable data, the absolute risk for death increased exponentially with decreasing renal function. Fourteen cohorts described the risk for mortality from reduced kidney function, after adjustment for other established risk factors. Although adjusted relative hazards were consistently lower than unadjusted relative risks (median reduction 17%), they remained significantly more than 1.0 in 71% of cohorts. This review supports current guidelines that identify individuals with CKD as being at high risk for cardiovascular mortality. Determining which interventions best offset this risk remains a health priority.
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              Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease.

              There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Studies of chronic stressors are discussed in terms of job stress, marital unhappiness, and burden of caregiving. From all of these studies there are extensive data concerning stressors' contributions to diverse pathophysiological changes including sudden death, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and wall motion abnormalities, as well as to alterations in cardiac regulation as indexed by changes in sympathetic nervous system activity and hemostasis. Although stressors trigger events, it is less clear that stress "causes" the events. There is nonetheless overwhelming evidence both for the deleterious effects of stress on the heart and for the fact that vulnerability and resilience factors play a role in amplifying or dampening those effects. Numerous approaches are available for stress management that can decrease patients' suffering and enhance their quality of life.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2565
                12 August 2020
                2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                1Meharry Medical College , Nashville, TN, United States
                2College of Public Health, The Ohio State University , Columbus, OH, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Soterios A. Kyrtopoulos, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece

                Reviewed by: Christiana A. Demetriou, University of Nicosia, Cyprus; Rachel Sabine Kelly, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, United States

                *Correspondence: Paul D. Juarez pjuarez@ 123456mmc.edu

                This article was submitted to Exposome, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Article
                10.3389/fpubh.2020.00379
                7437454
                Copyright © 2020 Juarez, Hood, Song and Ramesh.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 215, Pages: 20, Words: 16080
                Funding
                Funded by: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 10.13039/100000139
                Categories
                Public Health
                Review

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