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      Oral pyogenic granuloma: Various concepts of etiopathogenesis

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          Abstract

          Pyogenic granuloma or granuloma pyogenicum is a well-known oral lesion. The name pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva commonly. Extragingivally, it can occur on the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, and the like. A history of trauma is common in such sites. The etiology of the lesion is not known, though it was originally believed to be a botryomycotic infection. It is theorized that pyogenic granuloma possibly originates as a response of tissues to minor trauma and/or chronic irritation, thus opening a pathway for invasion of nonspecific microorganisms, although microorganisms are seldom demonstrated within the lesion. Pathogenesis of pyogenic granuloma is still debatable. Medline and PubMed databases were searched under the following key terms: Pathogenesis of oral pyogenic granuloma, pyogenic granuloma, and oral pyogenic granuloma. This search was limited to articles on human/animal studies which were published in English language. After reviewing the searched articles, the relevant articles were selected for the present review. Through this article, we have tried to summarize and present all the concepts of pathogenesis related to this most common and most mysterious oral lesion.

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          Most cited references34

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          Oral pyogenic granuloma: a review.

          Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manifesting as small, red erythematous papules on a pedunculated or sometimes sessile base, which is usually hemorrhagic. The surface ranges from pink to red to purple, depending on the age of the lesion. Although excisional surgery is the treatment of choice for it, some other treatment protocols such as the use of Nd:YAG laser, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, cryosurgery, intralesional injection of ethanol or corticosteroid and sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy have been proposed. Because of the high frequency of pyogenic granuloma in the oral cavity, especially during pregnancy, and necessity for proper diagnosis and treatment, a complete review of published information and investigations about this lesion, in addition to knowledge about new approaches for its treatment is presented.
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            Oral pyogenic granuloma in Jordanians: a retrospective analysis of 108 cases.

            The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the clinicopathologic features and treatment of oral pyogenic granuloma in Jordanian patients. Information regarding 108 cases of pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity that underwent biopsy were retrieved from the records of patients seen at the maxillofacial and periodontology units of the Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, during an 11-year period from 1991 to 2001. Data were reviewed and analyzed for age, gender, site, treatment, and clinical and histopathologic features. Patient ages ranged from 3 to 85 years (mean, 30 years), with the greatest degree of occurrence (26.8%) in the second decade. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.7. The mean age for females age was higher than that for males. The most frequently involved site was the gingiva (44.4%); other sites were the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Gingival pyogenic granulomas were more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible, with the anterior region of both jaws being more commonly affected. The labiobuccal gingiva of both jaws was more commonly affected. The main complaint was bleeding (59.3%), and almost half of the lesions had a pedunculated base, with surface ulceration in 9.2% of cases. The mean greatest granuloma diameter was 10 mm. All lesions were surgically excised, with 5.8% of cases known to have recurred. The clinicopathologic features of oral pyogenic granuloma in Jordanians are similar to those of other whites. In this series, we found that with surgical excision of pyogenic granuloma, there was a low recurrence rate.
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              Common benign oral soft tissue masses.

              This article reviews some of the more common benign oral soft tissue masses with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include traumatic fibroma, mucocele, warts/papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, generalized gingival hyperplasia, gingival fibromatosis, lateral periodontal cyst, lipoma, and denture-induced hyperplasia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Oral Maxillofac Pathol
                JOMFP
                Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology : JOMFP
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0973-029X
                1998-393X
                Jan-Apr 2012
                : 16
                : 1
                : 79-82
                Affiliations
                [1] Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, HPGDC, Shimla Himachal Pradesh, India
                [1 ] Department of Periodontics, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences, Paonta Sahib, Sirmour Himachal Pradesh, India
                [2 ] Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences, Paonta Sahib, Sirmour Himachal Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Reet Kamal, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, HPGDC, Shimla Himachal Pradesh - 177 001, India. E-mail: pareet00@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                JOMFP-16-79
                10.4103/0973-029X.92978
                3303528
                22434943
                f4a2d8b4-7d4a-40af-a51c-3be5309a474e
                Copyright: © Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Categories
                Review Article

                Pathology
                pyogenic granuloma,etiopathogenesis,oral
                Pathology
                pyogenic granuloma, etiopathogenesis, oral

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