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      DECREASING PREVALENCE OF THE ACUTE/SUBACUTE CLINICAL FORM OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL Translated title: Redução na prevalência da forma aguda/subaguda da paracoccidioidomicose em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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          With the objective to evaluate the behavior of paracoccidioidomycosis in the last three decades, clinical and epidemiological data of 595 patients admitted to clinical services of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul from 1980 to 2009 were investigated. Gender, age distribution, clinical form, comorbidity with tuberculosis or AIDS, and mortality were compared by decades of clinical admission. It was shown that during the three decades there was a decrease in women percentage, and the same manner occurred a reduction in participants in the age group of 20 to 39 years. Moreover, the acute/subacute forms have been diminished in the period. These fluctuations are closely related and can be simultaneously analyzed. Increased AIDS co-infection prevalence from the first to the second decade was also revealed, coinciding with the appearance of the retroviral epidemic and stabilizing during the third decade. No change in the tuberculosis co-infection rate was observed (overall = 6.9%). It reinforces the importance of this co-morbidity. The overall mortality rate remained steady at 6.7%, not varying significantly from one decade to another. The persistent mortality rate calls attention to the importance of this neglected disease.

          Translated abstract

          Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento da paracoccidioidomicose nas últimas três décadas, dados clínicos e epidemiológicos de 595 pacientes atendidos dentre 1980 a 2009 no Hospital da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul foram estudados. Sexo, faixa etária, forma clínica, associação com tuberculose ou AIDS e mortalidade foram comparados por década em que a doença foi diagnosticada. Observou-se, nas três décadas do estudo, uma redução do percentual de mulheres, de pacientes do grupo de 20 a 39 anos, assim como de casos com a forma aguda/subaguda. Estas alterações estão intimamente relacionadas e podem ser analisadas simultaneamente. Houve aumento de casos de coinfecção com AIDS da primeira para segunda década, coincidindo com o surgimento da epidemia, e manteve-se estável durante a década seguinte. Não houve alteração da taxa de coinfecção com tuberculose, que no geral foi de 6,9% o que reforça a importância desta comorbidade. A taxa geral de mortalidade foi de 6,7% e também não variou entre as décadas estudadas. A manutenção da taxa de óbitos chama a atenção para a relevância dessa doença negligenciada.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high level of speciation in the Paracoccidioides genus.

          Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease endemic to most of Latin America, with greatest impact in rural areas. The taxonomic status of one of the best studied Paracoccidioides isolates (Pb01) as P. brasiliensis remains unresolved due to its genomic differences from the other three previously described phylogenetic species (S1, PS2 and PS3; Carrero et al., 2008. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45, 605). Using the genealogic concordance method of phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR) via maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis, we identified a clade of 17 genotypically similar isolates, including Pb01, which are distinct from the S1/PS2/P3 clade. Consistent with GCPSR, this "Pb01-like" group can be considered a new phylogenetic species, since it is strongly supported by all independent and concatenated genealogies. "Pb01-like" species exhibit great sequence and morphological divergence from the S1/PS2/PS3 species clade, and we estimate that these groups last shared a common ancestor approximately 32 million years ago. In addition, recombination analysis revealed independent events inside both main groups suggesting reproductive isolation. Consequently, we recommend the formal description of the "Pb01-like" cluster as the new species Paracoccidioides lutzii, a tribute to Adolpho Lutz, discoverer of P. brasiliensis in 1908.
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              Clinical and host differences between infections with the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans.

               D Dunt,  B Speed (1995)
              A population-based register of cases of cryptococcosis in patients treated in Victoria, Australia, over a 10-year period was established for studying the epidemiologic and clinical features of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and its two varieties, gattii and neoformans. One hundred thirty-three cases of cryptococcosis were entered on the register; the incidence was 3.0 cases per 1 million population per year, a rate that increased to 5.0 cases per 1 million population per year over the decade as a result of the AIDS epidemic. There was a distinct association between immune status and C. neoformans variety: all C. neoformans variety gattii infections occurred in healthy hosts and 90% of C. neoformans variety neoformans infections occurred in immunosuppressed hosts. Meningitis was the commonest manifestation, with focal CNS and pulmonary lesions occurring primarily in healthy hosts with C. neoformans variety gattii infection; isolation of C. neoformans from blood and urine was associated with immunosuppression and C. neoformans variety neoformans infection. The mortality among patients with C. neoformans variety neoformans infection was high, while none of those patients with C. neoformans variety gattii died but often had neurological sequelae that required surgery and prolonged therapy. These findings appear to be related to variety-specific interactions between host and parasite and warrant further epidemiologic and immunologic study.

                Author and article information

                Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo
                Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
                Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
                Instituto de Medicina Tropical
                Mar-Apr 2014
                Mar-Apr 2014
                : 56
                : 2
                : 121-125
                [(1) ] Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. E-mails: larissafabris@ 123456ibest.com.br ursulla@ 123456gmail.com alineafds@ 123456yahoo.com.br sandrinhaleone@ 123456gmail.com anapaniago@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                [(2) ] Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande (UFMS), MS, Brazil. E-mail: apcmarques@ 123456hotmail.com
                [(3) ] Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil. E-mail: tietemendes@ 123456terra.com.br
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago. E- mail: anapaniago@ 123456yahoo.com.br

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, References: 38, Pages: 5

                paracoccidioidomycosis, geographic area, age group


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