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Mesenchymal tumours of the mediastinum—part II

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      Abstract

      This is the second part of a two-part review on soft tissue tumours which may be encountered in the mediastinum. This review is based on the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumours and the 2015 WHO classification of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart and provides an updated overview of mesenchymal tumours that have been reported in the mediastinum.

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      Most cited references 233

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      Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. A clinicopathologic study of 120 cases.

      A review was done of 120 cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) seen during a 71-year period. Of the 120 patients, 52 were males and 68 were females with a mean age at diagnosis of 35.3 years; 12 patients were younger than 20 years. The series included 62 (52%) patients with neurofibromatosis, 13 (11%) with postradiation sarcomas, and 19 (16%) with metaplastic foci. The incidence of MPNST arising in neurofibromatosis was 4.6% in the current series and 0.001% in the general clinic population. Tumors greater than 5 cm and the presence of neurofibromatosis adversely affected the prognosis (P less than 0.05). When both features were present, survival was greatly decreased. Patients with tumor in the extremities did better than those with head or neck lesions. Metaplastic foci or previous radiation at the tumor site did not alter the prognosis. Each tumor was graded 1 to 4 on the basis of cellularity, pleomorphism, mitotic index, and necrosis. No significant correlation was noted between survival and either grade or mitotic rate. Survival was improved when total rather than subtotal resection was done. This was most marked in patients with a small lesion, which may reflect the difficulty in adequately excising large tumors. Adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy did not appear to affect survival. The MPNST is an aggressive uncommon neoplasm, and large tumor size, the presence of neurofibromatosis, and total resection are the most important prognostic indicators.
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        Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a vascular tumor often mistaken for a carcinoma.

        Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a unique tumor of adult life which is characterized by an "epithelioid" or "histiocytoid" endothelial cell. Forty-one cases of this rare tumor have been recognized at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. They may occur in either superficial or deep soft tissue, and in 26 cases appeared to arise from a vessel, usually a medium-sized or large vein. They are composed of rounded or slightly spindled eosinophilic endothelial cells with rounded nuclei and prominent cytoplasmic vacuolization. The latter feature probably represents primitive lumen formation by a single cell. The cells grown in small nests or cords and only focally line well-formed vascular channels. The pattern of solid growth and the epithelioid appearance of the endothelium frequently leads to the mistaken diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma. The tumor can be distinguished from a carcinoma by the lack of pleomorphism and mitotic activity in most instances and by the presence of focal vascular channels. Ultrastructural study in four cases confirmed the endothelial nature of the tumor in demonstrating cells surrounded by basal lamina, dotted with surface pinocytotic vesicles, and occasionally containing Weibel-Palade bodies. Follow-up information in 31 cases indicated that 20 patients were alive and well following therapy; three developed local recurrences and six metastases. It is suggested the term epithelioid hemangioendothelioma be used to designate these biologically "borderline" neoplasms. The significance of the epithelioid endothelial cell is not entirely clear. Since it may be observed in both benign and malignant vascular lesions, its presence alone does not define a clinicopathologic entity.
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          A novel WWTR1-CAMTA1 gene fusion is a consistent abnormality in epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of different anatomic sites.

          The classification of epithelioid vascular tumors remains challenging, as there is considerable morphological overlap between tumor subtypes, across the spectrum from benign to malignant categories. A t(1;3)(p36.3;q25) translocation was reported in two cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), however, no follow-up studies have been performed to identify the gene fusion or to assess its prevalence in a larger cohort of patients. We undertook a systematic molecular analysis of 17 EHE, characterized by classic morphological and immunophenotypic features, from various anatomical locations and with different malignant potential. For comparison, we analyzed 13 epithelioid hemangiomas, five epithelioid angiosarcomas, and four epithelioid sarcoma-like EHE. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) positional cloning strategy, spanning the cytogenetically defined regions on chromosomes 1p36.3 and 3q25, confirmed rearrangements in two candidate genes from these loci in all EHE cases tested. None of the other benign or malignant epithelioid vascular tumors examined demonstrated these abnormalities. Subsequent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed in three EHE the WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion product. CAMTA1 and WWTR1 have been previously shown to play important roles in oncogenesis. Our results demonstrate the presence of a WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion in all EHE tested from bone, soft tissue, and visceral location (liver, lung) in keeping with a unique and specific pathological entity. Thus, FISH or RT-PCR analysis for the presence of WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion may serve as a useful molecular diagnostic tool in challenging diagnoses. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Department of Pathology, Maasstad Ziekenhuis, PO Box 9100, 3007 AC Rotterdam, The Netherlands
            [ ]Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
            [ ]Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
            [ ]Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
            [ ]Department of Pathology, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
            Contributors
            +31 10 2914401 , bakkerma@maasstadziekenhuis.nl
            Journal
            Virchows Arch
            Virchows Arch
            Virchows Archiv
            Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            0945-6317
            1432-2307
            10 September 2015
            10 September 2015
            2015
            : 467
            : 5
            : 501-517
            26358060
            4656710
            1832
            10.1007/s00428-015-1832-6
            © The Author(s) 2015

            Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

            Categories
            Review and Perspectives
            Custom metadata
            © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

            Pathology

            soft tissue tumours, mesenchymal tumours, mediastinum

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