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      Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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          Abstract

          Background: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentration; however, their impact on cardiovascular outcomes is not clear. This systematic review examines the effect of CETP inhibitors on serum lipid profiles, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials for placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of a CETP inhibitor (dalcetrapib, anacetrapib, evacetrapib, or TA-8995) on all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), or the components of MACE at ≥6 months. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Results: A total of 11 RCTs ( n = 62,431) were included in our systematic review; 4 examined dalcetrapib ( n = 16,612), 6 anacetrapib ( n = 33,682), and 1 evacetrapib ( n = 12,092). Compared to dalcetrapib, ana­cetrapib and evacetrapib were more efficacious at raising HDL-c levels (∼100–130 vs. ∼30%). Anacetrapib and evacetrapib also decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) by approximately 30% while dalcetrapib did not affect the LDL-c level. Overall, CETP inhibitors were not associated with the incidence of MACE (pooled relative risk [RR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91–1.04). CETP inhibitors may decrease the risks of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87–1.00) and cardiovascular death (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.83–1.01), though these trends did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: CETP inhibitors are not associated with an increased risk of MACE or all-cause mortality. There is a trend towards small reductions in nonfatal MI and cardiovascular death, though the clinical im­portance of such reductions is likely modest.

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          Most cited references21

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          Safety of anacetrapib in patients with or at high risk for coronary heart disease.

          Anacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor that raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety profile of anacetrapib in patients with coronary heart disease or at high risk for coronary heart disease. Eligible patients who were taking a statin and who had an LDL cholesterol level that was consistent with that recommended in guidelines were assigned to receive 100 mg of anacetrapib or placebo daily for 18 months. The primary end points were the percent change from baseline in LDL cholesterol at 24 weeks (HDL cholesterol level was a secondary end point) and the safety and side-effect profile of anacetrapib through 76 weeks. Cardiovascular events and deaths were prospectively adjudicated. A total of 1623 patients underwent randomization. By 24 weeks, the LDL cholesterol level had been reduced from 81 mg per deciliter (2.1 mmol per liter) to 45 mg per deciliter (1.2 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group, as compared with a reduction from 82 mg per deciliter (2.1 mmol per liter) to 77 mg per deciliter (2.0 mmol per liter) in the placebo group (P<0.001)--a 39.8% reduction with anacetrapib beyond that seen with placebo. In addition, the HDL cholesterol level increased from 41 mg per deciliter (1.0 mmol per liter) to 101 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group, as compared with an increase from 40 mg per deciliter (1.0 mmol per liter) to 46 mg per deciliter (1.2 mmol per liter) in the placebo group (P<0.001)--a 138.1% increase with anacetrapib beyond that seen with placebo. Through 76 weeks, no changes were noted in blood pressure or electrolyte or aldosterone levels with anacetrapib as compared with placebo. Prespecified adjudicated cardiovascular events occurred in 16 patients treated with anacetrapib (2.0%) and 21 patients receiving placebo (2.6%) (P = 0.40). The prespecified Bayesian analysis indicated that this event distribution provided a predictive probability (confidence) of 94% that anacetrapib would not be associated with a 25% increase in cardiovascular events, as seen with torcetrapib. Treatment with anacetrapib had robust effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol, had an acceptable side-effect profile, and, within the limits of the power of this study, did not result in the adverse cardiovascular effects observed with torcetrapib. (Funded by Merck Research Laboratories; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00685776.).
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            High-density lipoprotein as a therapeutic target: a systematic review.

            High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a cardiovascular risk factor that is gaining substantial interest as a therapeutic target. To review the current and emerging strategies that modify high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Systematic search of English-language literature (1965-May 2007) in MEDLINE and the Cochrane database, using the key words HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I and the subheadings reverse cholesterol transport, CVD [cardiovascular disease] prevention and control, drug therapy, and therapy; review of presentations made at major cardiovascular meetings from 2003-2007; and review of ongoing trials from ClinicalTrials.gov and current guidelines from major cardiovascular societies. Study selection was prioritized to identify randomized controlled trials over meta-analyses over mechanistic studies; identified studies also included proof-of-concept studies and key phase 1 through 3 trials of novel agents. Study eligibility was assessed by 2 authors; disagreements were resolved by consensus with the third. Of 754 studies identified, 31 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Currently available therapeutic and lifestyle strategies, when optimized, increase HDL-C levels by 20% to 30%. While basic and small pilot studies have shown promise, proof that increasing HDL-C levels confers a reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes independent of changes in levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides has been more elusive. Some novel therapeutic agents in human studies appear to effectively increase HDL-C levels, whereas other novel strategies that target HDL metabolism or function may have minimal effect on HDL-C levels. At present there is modest evidence to support aggressively increasing HDL-C levels in addition to what is achieved by lifestyle modification alone. Ongoing clinical trials that target specific pathways in HDL metabolism may help expand cardiovascular treatment options.
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              Torcetrapib and carotid intima-media thickness in mixed dyslipidaemia (RADIANCE 2 study): a randomised, double-blind trial.

              Patients with mixed dyslipidaemia have raised triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Augmentation of HDL cholesterol by inhibition of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) could benefit these patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of the CETP inhibitor, torcetrapib, on carotid atherosclerosis progression in patients with mixed dyslipidaemia. We did a randomised double-blind trial at 64 centres in North America and Europe. 752 eligible participants completed an atorvastatin-only run-in period for dose titration, after which they all continued to receive atorvastatin at the titrated dose. 377 of these patients were randomly assigned to receive 60 mg of torcetrapib per day and 375 to placebo. We made carotid ultrasound images at baseline and at 6-month intervals for 24 months. The primary endpoint was the yearly rate of change in the maximum intima-media thickness of 12 carotid segments. Analysis was restricted to 683 patients who had at least one dose of treatment and had at least one follow-up carotid intima-media measurement; they were analysed as randomised. Mean follow-up for these patients was 22 (SD 4.8) months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00134238. The change in maximum carotid intima-media thickness was 0.025 (SD 0.005) mm per year in patients given torcetrapib with atorvastatin and 0.030 (0.005) mm per year in those given atorvastatin alone (difference -0.005 mm per year, 95% CI -0.018 to 0.008, p=0.46). Patients in the combined-treatment group had a 63.4% relative increase in HDL cholesterol (p<0.0001) and an 17.7% relative decrease in LDL cholesterol (p<0.0001), compared with controls. Systolic blood pressure increased by 6.6 mm Hg in the combined-treatment group and 1.5 mm Hg in the atorvastatin-only group (difference 5.4 mm Hg, 95% CI 4.3-6.4, p<0.0001). Although torcetrapib substantially raised HDL cholesterol and lowered LDL cholesterol, it also increased systolic blood pressure, and did not affect the yearly rate of change in the maximum intima-media thickness of 12 carotid segments. Torcetrapib showed no clinical benefit in this or other studies, and will not be developed further.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2020
                April 2020
                13 March 2020
                : 145
                : 4
                : 236-250
                Affiliations
                [_a] aCenter for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital/McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
                [_b] bDepartment of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
                [_c] cDepartment of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
                [_d] dDivision of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital/McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
                Author notes
                *Mark J. Eisenberg, MD, MPH, Jewish General Hospital/McGill University, 3755 Côte Ste-Catherine Road, Suite H-421.1, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2 (Canada), mark.eisenberg@mcgill.ca
                Article
                505365 Cardiology 2020;145:236–250
                10.1159/000505365
                32172237
                f4ad46f2-9b30-40aa-a795-9f83d329096f
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 07 August 2019
                : 10 December 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, Pages: 15
                Categories
                Cardiovascular Prevention: Systematic Review

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors,Systematic review,Meta-analysis,Low-density lipoproteins,High-density lipoproteins,Cardiovascular events

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