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      Benefits of different intensities of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with moderate-to-severe COPD according to the GOLD stage: a prospective, multicenter, single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is essential to manage patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate intensity of PR exercise training for patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.

          Patients and methods

          A prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2014 to October 2018. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups with different intensities of PR, according to their maximum oxygen uptake percentage determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. After 20 weeks of exercise training, the effects of low-, moderate-, and high-intensity exercise interventions on patients were compared to determine the most appropriate PR prescription.

          Results

          For patients with moderate COPD, all the measured parameters were significantly improved in the moderate- and high-intensity PR groups ( P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in the frequency of acute exacerbations and the mMRC questionnaire after 20 weeks of PR exercise in the low-intensity PR group. For patients with severe COPD, all variables were also improved in the high-intensity PR group ( P<0.05), while the mean differences of pre- and post-PR were lower than those in patients with moderate COPD. Moreover, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and body mass index showed no significant difference in low-intensity PR group ( P>0.05).

          Conclusion

          High-intensity PR exercise is helpful for patients with moderate to severe COPD. Moderate COPD patients need to receive intensive PR training; the improvement degrees from PR intervention were higher than those of the severe COPD patients. For patients with severe COPD, high-intensity PR exercise may be more beneficial if patients can tolerate it.

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          Most cited references 26

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          The Effect of Complex Interventions on Depression and Anxiety in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

          Background Depression and anxiety are very common in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Patients prefer non-drug treatments and clinical guidelines promote non-pharmacological interventions as first line therapy for depression and anxiety in people with long term conditions. However the comparative effectiveness of psychological and lifestyle interventions among COPD patients is not known. We assessed whether complex psychological and/or lifestyle interventions are effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with COPD. We then determined what types of psychological and lifestyle interventions are most effective. Methods and Findings Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of psychological and/or lifestyle interventions for adults with COPD that measured symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science and Scopus were searched up to April 2012. Meta-analyses using random effects models were undertaken to estimate the average effect of interventions on depression and anxiety. Thirty independent comparisons from 29 randomised controlled trials (n = 2063) were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, psychological and/or lifestyle interventions were associated with small reductions in symptoms of depression (standardised mean difference −0.28, 95% confidence interval −0.41 to −0.14) and anxiety (standardised mean difference −0.23, 95% confidence interval −0.38 to −0.09). Multi-component exercise training was the only intervention subgroup associated with significant treatment effects for depression (standardised mean difference −0.47, 95% confidence interval −0.66 to −0.28), and for anxiety (standardised mean difference −0.45, 95% confidence interval −0.71 to −0.18). Conclusions Complex psychological and/or lifestyle interventions that include an exercise component significantly improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in people with COPD. Furthermore, multi-component exercise training effectively reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression in all people with COPD regardless of severity of depression or anxiety, highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity in this population.
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            Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour following pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD.

            A more profound investigation about the responses in activity levels following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with COPD is needed. We aimed to describe groups of patients with COPD according to patterns of change in physical activity and sedentary behaviour following PR. 90 patients with COPD (60% male; mean age 67 ± 8; median FEV1 47 (32-62) %pred) completed a comprehensive PR programme. A triaxial accelerometer was used to assess the time in sedentary behaviour, light activities and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Additionally, exercise capacity, quality of life, and symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed before and after PR. Six groups with different patterns of change in physical activity and sedentary behaviour were identified. The two most prevalent patterns were represented by good responders (increase in physical activity and reduction in sedentary behaviour, 34%) and poor responders (decrease in physical activity and increase in sedentary behaviour, 30%). Good responders had greater improvements in six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and symptoms of depression than poor responders (P < 0.05 for all). Strong correlation was found between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in light activities (rs = -0.89; P < 0.0001). Changes in 6MWD correlated fairly with changes in sedentary behaviour (rs = -0.26), light activities (rs = 0.25), and MVPA (rs = 0.24); P < 0.05 for all. Different patterns of change in activity levels following PR can be found in patients with COPD. Focusing on light physical activities might be a potential strategy to make patients less sedentary, but for this to be achieved prior (or at least parallel) improvements in functional capacity seem to be necessary.
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              Effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD with mild symptoms: a systematic review with meta-analyses

              Purpose Most guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) levels ≥2, but the effectiveness of PR in patients with less advanced disease is not well established. Our aim was to investigate the effects of PR in patients with COPD and mMRC ≤1. Methods The methodology was developed as a part of evidence-based guideline development and is in accordance with the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) through a systematic, multidatabase literature search and selected RCTs comparing the effects of PR with usual care in patients with COPD and mMRC ≤1. Predefined critical outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQoL), adverse effects and mortality, while walking distance, maximal exercise capacity, muscle strength, and dropouts were important outcomes. Two authors independently extracted data, assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and graded the evidence. Meta-analyses were performed when deemed feasible. Results Four RCTs (489 participants) were included. On the basis of moderate-quality evidence, we found a clinically and statistically significant improvement in short-term HRQoL of 4.2 units (95% confidence interval [CI]: [−4.51 to −3.89]) on St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, but not at the longest follow-up. We also found a statistically significant improvement of 25.71 m (95% CI: [15.76–35.65]) in the 6-minute walk test with PR; however, this improvement was not considered clinically relevant. No difference was found for mortality, and insufficient data prohibited meta-analysis for muscle strength and maximal exercise capacity. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion We found a moderate quality of evidence suggesting a small, significant improvement in short-term HRQoL and a clinically nonsignificant improvement in walking distance following PR in patients with COPD and mild symptoms. This resulted in a weak recommendation of routine PR in these patients using the GRADE approach.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                08 October 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 2291-2304
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine , Shanghai 200025, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Rehabilitation, The Fourth Rehabilitation Hospital of Shanghai (Shanghai Jingan Geriatric Hospital) , Shanghai 200042, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Institute of Respiratory Disease, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine , Shanghai 200025, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University , Jiangsu 215004, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]West-Nanjing Road Community Health-care Center of Shanghai , Shanghai 200040, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]Caojiadu Community Health Service of Shanghai , Shanghai 200042, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qing Yun LiDepartment of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine , No. 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai200025, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 1 350 173 8686Fax +86 215 764 3271Email liqingyun68@hotmail.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                214836
                10.2147/COPD.S214836
                6790109
                © 2019 He et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 37, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Original Research

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