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      Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring.

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          Abstract

          The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
          Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications
          Elsevier BV
          1873-0191
          0928-4931
          Dec 01 2015
          : 57
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China; Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People's Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031, China.
          [2 ] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fifth People's Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China.
          [3 ] Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People's Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031, China.
          [4 ] Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China. Electronic address: rhuo12@163.com.
          Article
          S0928-4931(15)30248-4
          10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.062
          26354253

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