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      Extensive Thrombus Formation in the Right Ventricle due to a Rare Combination of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy and Heterozygous Prothrombin Gene Mutation G20210 A


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          Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a rare heart muscle disease characterized by right and often left ventricular myocardial atrophy and fibrofatty replacement. Heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death are characteristic complications. We observed a female in whom arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was diagnosed due to presyncopes and dyspnea on exertion. A left ventricular thrombus was found echocardiographically, which disappeared with oral anticoagulation. Subsequently, however, extensive thrombus formation in the dilated akinetic right ventricle occurred which was resistant to combined treatment with heparin and oral anticoagulation. Thrombophilia screening showed a mutant prothrombin 20210A allele which is an inherited coagulopathy associated with increased plasma levels of prothrombin and increased risks of mainly venous thrombosis. The patient developed endstage biventricular heart failure and underwent heart transplantation within 3 months after thrombus formation in the right ventricle was diagnosed. In the explanted heart, the thrombus in the right ventricle was impressively large and calcified. In patients with unusual thrombus formation in the heart, coagulopathy may be associated and should be excluded.

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          High risk of cerebral-vein thrombosis in carriers of a prothrombin-gene mutation and in users of oral contraceptives.

          Idiopathic cerebral-vein thrombosis can cause serious neurologic disability. We evaluated risk factors for this disorder, including genetic risk factors (mutations in the genes encoding factor V and prothrombin) and nongenetic risk factors (such as the use of oral contraceptive agents). We compared the prevalence of these risk factors in 40 patients with cerebral-vein thrombosis, 80 patients with deep-vein thrombosis of the lower extremities, and 120 healthy controls. The G1691A mutation in the factor V gene and the G20210A prothrombin-gene mutation, which are established genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis, were studied. We also assessed the use of oral contraceptives and other risk factors for thrombosis. The prevalence of the prothrombin-gene mutation was higher in patients with cerebral-vein thrombosis (20 percent) than in healthy controls (3 percent; odds ratio, 10.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.3 to 31.0) and was similar to that in patients with deep-vein thrombosis (18 percent). Similar results were obtained for the mutation in the factor V gene. The use of oral contraceptives was more frequent among women with cerebral-vein thrombosis (96 percent) than among controls (32 percent; odds ratio, 22.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 5.9 to 84.2) and among those with deep-vein thrombosis (61 percent; odds ratio, 4.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 17.8). For women who were taking oral contraceptives and who also had the prothrombin-gene mutation (seven patients with cerebral-vein thrombosis but only one control), the odds ratio for cerebral-vein thrombosis rose to 149.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 31.0 to 711.0). Mutations in the prothrombin gene and the factor V gene are associated with cerebral-vein thrombosis. The use of oral contraceptives is also strongly and independently associated with the disorder. The presence of both the prothrombin-gene mutation and oral-contraceptive use raises the risk of cerebral-vein thrombosis further.

            Author and article information

            S. Karger AG
            June 2000
            04 July 2000
            : 93
            : 1-2
            : 127-130
            Divisions of aCardiology and bHematology, and cDepartment of Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
            7014 Cardiology 2000;93:127–130
            © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Figures: 2, References: 12, Pages: 4
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