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      Challenges in reduction of dinitrogen by proton and electron transfer.

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          Abstract

          Ammonia is an important nutrient for the growth of plants. In industry, ammonia is produced by the energy expensive Haber-Bosch process where dihydrogen and dinitrogen form ammonia at a very high pressure and temperature. In principle one could also reduce dinitrogen upon addition of protons and electrons similar to the mechanism of ammonia production by nitrogenases. Recently, major breakthroughs have taken place in our understanding of biological fixation of dinitrogen, of molecular model systems that can reduce dinitrogen, and in the electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen at heterogeneous surfaces. Yet for efficient reduction of dinitrogen with protons and electrons major hurdles still have to be overcome. In this tutorial review we give an overview of the different catalytic systems, highlight the recent breakthroughs, pinpoint common grounds and discuss the bottlenecks and challenges in catalytic reduction of dinitrogen.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Chem Soc Rev
          Chemical Society reviews
          1460-4744
          0306-0012
          Aug 7 2014
          : 43
          : 15
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands. d.g.h.hetterscheid@chem.leidenuniv.nl.
          Article
          10.1039/c4cs00085d
          24802308
          f4c8202f-4a11-4420-ac3b-da7da012f2e0
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