In the past decade, the tremendous advances in computed tomography (CT) technology and applications have increased the clinical utilization of CT, creating concerns about individual and population doses of ionizing radiation. Scanner manufacturers have subsequently implemented several options to appropriately manage or reduce the radiation dose from CT. Modulation of the x-ray tube current during scanning is one effective method of managing the dose. However, the distinctions between the various tube current modulation products are not clear from the product names or descriptions. Depending on the scanner model, the tube current may be modulated according to patient attenuation or a sinusoidal-type function. The modulation may be fully preprogrammed, implemented in near-real time by using a feedback mechanism, or achieved with both preprogramming and a feedback loop. The dose modulation may occur angularly around the patient, along the long axis of the patient, or both. Finally, the system may allow use of one of several algorithms to automatically adjust the current to achieve the desired image quality. Modulation both angularly around the patient and along the z-axis is optimal, but the tube current must be appropriately adapted to patient size for diagnostic image quality to be achieved. (c) RSNA, 2006.