Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of kidney injury. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, β-blockers and lipid lowering agents depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in prevention and attenuation of renal scaring in numerous animal models of kidney diseases. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and phytoestrogens, and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen renal damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in patients with kidney disease. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies are indispensable.